Cushing IV DD- 797 - History

Cushing IV DD- 797 - History

Cushing IV

(DD-797: dp. 2,050; 1. 376'6"; b. 39'8"; dr. 17'9"; a 35 k.; cpl. 320; a. 5 5", 10 21" tt., 6 dcp., 2 Fletcher)

The fourth Cushing (DD-797) was launched 30 September 1943 by Bethlehem Steel Co., Staten Island N.Y. sponsored by Miss K. A. Cushing; and commissioned 17 January 1944, Commander L. F. yolk in command.

Cushing sailed from Norfolk 6 May 1944, for training at San Diego and Pearl Harbor, and escorted a convoy to Eniwetok before returning to Bremerton, Wash., to have her antisubmarine equipment modernized. She joined the 5th Fleet at Eniwetok 24 August to sortie for the invasion of the Palau Islands. She screened the carriers during their strikes on Mindanao, Samar, Cebu, and Negros in the Philippines, then supported the ground forces as they assaulted Angaur 17 September. She returned to the carriers' screen for raids on Formosa, Manila, and northern Luzon which neutralized Japanese bases for the scheduled invasion of the Philippines, rescuing numerous downed aviators. Her antiaircraft fire accounted for at least one Japanese plane during the heavy air attacks of 24 October in the epic Battle for Leyte Gulf. She returned to Ulithi 22 November to replenish.

Sortieing with TF 38 on 10 December 1944 for air strikes on Luzon, Cushing weathered the typhoon of 18 December and rescued survivors of less fortunate ships before returning to Ulithi 24 December for storm repairs. She sailed with the task force 1 January 1945 for air strikes on Formosa, Indo-Chinn, China coast and the Philippines until 28 January. Joining TF 58 for the strikes on the Japanese home islands, Cushing served as radar picket ship at the launching point and successfully directed the destruction of many Japanese aircraft trying to break through to attack the carriers. She screened the carriers for the preinvasion strikes on Iwo Jima and Okinawa and fired in softening-up bombardment on Okinawa. Serving as radar picket ship during the struggle for Okinawa, she provided fighter direction which accounted for many Japanese aircraft. After replenishing at Leyte in June, she rejoined the carriers for strikes on the Tokyo area until the end of the war. Anchoring in Sagami Wan 27 August 1945, she served as harbor entrance control vessel for the occupation forces until sailing for home. She arrived at Bremerton, Wash., 20 November 1945 and Cushing was placed out of commission in reserve at Long Beach 3 February 1947.

Recommissioned 17 August 1951, Cushing sailed from Long Beach 15 November and arrived at Norfolk 30 November to join the Atlantic Fleet. She conducted exercises in the North Atlantic and in the Caribbean, and cleared Norfolk 7 January 1953 to join TF 77 off Korea for duty as plane guard. On 2 and 3 June she fired in the bombardment of Hodo Pando. She visited Manila, Singapore, Colombo, Aden, Piraeus, Genoa, Cannes, and Algiers, before returning to Norfolk 22 August from this cruise around the world. She cruised the east coast in antisubmarine exercises and reserve training, and in 1954 sailed to the Mediterranean for duty. Transferred to the Pacific Fleet, she arrived at Long Beach 26 January 1956.

In tours of duty in the Far East in 1955, 1956, 1957-58, and 1959-60 Cushing served as plane guard and joined in hunter-killer exercises with TF 77 patrolled in the Taiwan Straits, and visited various ports strengthening national ties in the President's "People to People" program. While "stateside" she operated along the west coast in antisubmarine and antiaircraft warfare exercises, and midshipmen and reserve training. Cushing's home port was changed to Charleston, S.C., in October 1960, and the destroyer sailed to the east coast. Cushing was placed out of commission in reserve at Norfolk, VA., on 8 November 1960.

Cushing received six battle stars for World War II service and two Korean Conflict service.

USS Cushing (DD-797)

USS Cushing (DD-797) was a Fletcher-class destroyer of the United States Navy, the fourth Navy ship named for Commander William B. Cushing (1842�), who distinguished himself during the American Civil War. Cushing was launched on 30 September 1943, by Bethlehem Steel Co., in Staten Island, New York she was sponsored by Miss Katherine A. Cushing, a daughter of Commander Cushing. The vessel's commissioning was on 17 January 1944, with Commander Louis F. Volk in command.

The Cushing was placed into active service twice by the United States Navy, first during World War II (earning six battle stars) and next during the Korean War (earning two additional battle stars). During WW II, she participated in the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, the Battle of Angaur, the Philippines campaign, 1944-45, the Battle for Leyte Gulf, pre-invasion strikes on Iwo Jima and Okinawa, the Battle of Okinawa, and finally, strikes on the Tokyo area until the end of the war. For several months after the signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, she served as the harbor entrance control vessel at Sagami Wan for the occupation forces before returning home. During the Korea conflict, Cushing served as plane guard and participated in bombardment of North Korea. After the war, she patrolled in the Taiwan Straits, and visited various ports strengthening national ties in the President Dwight D. Eisenhower's "People to People" program.

Cushing was loaned to Brazil in 1961, and served in the Brazilian Navy as Paraná (D29) for twelve years.

Developing USP General Chapter <797>

USP is a not-for-profit, science-driven organization that has an established process for convening independent experts in the development and maintenance of healthcare quality standards. The process is public health focused, leveraging current science and technology, and draws on the expertise of scientists and healthcare practitioners while providing opportunities for public input from stakeholders throughout the standards’ progress.

The USP Compounding Expert Committee is responsible for the development of General Chapter <797>. Review their work plan and past meeting summaries.


In their home market, the Carry truck and van (and Every van) have traditionally competed with a number of similarly sized vehicles, such as the Kurogane Baby, Honda Acty, Subaru Sambar, Mitsubishi Minicab, and the Daihatsu Hijet. Some of these are also competitors in export markets, mainly the Carry and the Hijet.

The first two generations of Carrys were sold with the Suzulight badge rather than the company name Suzuki, emphasizing the company's focus on "Light Cars" (better known as Kei jidosha).

The Carry series was born in October 1961 with the FB Suzulight Carry, a pickup truck with the engine underneath the front seat but with a short bonnet. The layout has been referred to as a "semi-cabover". [2] The FB Carry underwent some light modifications in October 1963, for the 1964 model year. A glassed FBD Carry Van was added in September 1964. The engine too was called the FB, a 359 cc (21.9 cu in) air-cooled, two-stroke two-cylinder with 21 hp (16 kW). This engine remained in use, in three-cylinder form, until late 1987 in the Suzuki Jimny (as the LJ50). Top speed was no more than 76 km/h (47 mph). FB suspension was rigid with leaf springs, front and rear. [1] A panel van (FBC) was also available from July 1962.

In June 1965, the rebodied L20 Suzulight Carry replaced the FB. The ladder-frame chassis was modified, now with independently sprung front wheels (by torsion bars). While output remained 21 hp, the engine benefitted from Suzuki's patented CCI (Cylinder Crank Injection) lubrication system. The Carry Van was replaced by the new L20V in January 1966, [3] and there was also a dropside pickup (L21). Finally, there was the L20H, a pickup with a canvas canopy and a rear-facing seat placed in the bed, providing seating for four. Top speed for the second generation was down to 75 km/h. [4] The Carry Van had a horizontally divided two-piece tailgate, and sliding rear windows.

Production of this more traditional version continued in parallel with the cab-over L30 Carry, ending only with the 1969 introduction of the L40.

The new L30 Suzuki Carry (the "Suzulight" label was being retired) is a full cab-over design, with the same FB engine mounted horizontally underneath the load area. The starter and generator were combined and mounted directly on the front of the crankshaft. Introduced in February 1966, the L30 was built alongside its more traditional predecessor until they were both replaced by the L40. A canopied L30H, similar to the L20H but with the seats in the bed facing each other, was available right from the start. There was also an L31, with a drop-side bed. Performance and mechanics were very similar to its bonneted sister, but the load area was considerably larger. Maximum load capacity was still 350 kg (770 lb). [6]

A short-lived Carry Van version of the L30 ("L30V") was not introduced until March 1968, but offered four doors and a two-piece tailgate (top and bottom). Bodywork was the same ahead of the B-pillar. [7]

In July 1969, the Giugiaro designed L40 Carry was introduced. In November of the same year, a van version with two opening side doors and a top-hinged rear gate was added. Giugiaro's design was more obvious in the Carry Van iteration, very symmetrical with similar looks to the front and rear. The L40's design was not overly utilitarian, limiting interior space and being a bit too modern for the usually very orthodox Japanese commercial customer base. On the other hand, the L40 did benefit from an updated, 25 PS (18 kW) reed valve version of the now venerable FB engine. [9] Dimensions, dictated by kei jidosha regulations, remained 2,990 mm × 1,295 mm (117.7 in × 51.0 in) and 359 cc (21.9 cu in). Max load was 350 kg (770 lb) for the truck and 300 kg (660 lb) for the van versions. Top speed increased considerably to 95 kilometres per hour (59 mph). [6]

As part of a minor facelift in April 1971, the Carry received a 27 PS (still at 6,000 rpm) version of the well-known FB engine, featuring Suzuki's CCIS (Cylinder Crank Injection and Selmix) lubrication system. This engine also found its way into the recently introduced LJ10 Jimny. Torque was 3.7 kg⋅m (36 N⋅m 27 lb⋅ft) at 5,000 rpm. There was also a Panel Van version, with a boxy unit mounted on the rear of a Carry truck chassis. In 1971, a V40FC Camper version of the Van was also added.

While the truck versions were replaced in May 1972, the L40V continued for another three months before an L50 Van took its place. [10]

The fifth generation L50 Carry truck debuted in May 1972, followed by a new Carry van in August. The new model echoes Giugiaro's design, but without ventilation windows in the front doors and with a more traditional appearance. Headlights are now round, while the van version receives a more square rear body and with a sliding rear side door. The engine is a water-cooled design (L50), otherwise similar to the previous engine but now with 28 hp (21 kW). Max load was back up to 350 kg (770 lb). [6]

In December 1972, a five-door van (L50VF, with sliding side doors) was added. Three months later, the dropside L51 went on sale. In November 1973, the Carry underwent a minor facelift, receiving a new grille and modified front bumper. The interior was also updated, with a new dashboard and finally hanging gas and clutch pedals. The fifth generation Carry led Suzuki to great market success, with Suzuki selling more kei trucks than all others during 1973 and 1974. [11]

In September 1975, a special export version was introduced, aimed at customers who wanted more loading ability. The new L60 series received a larger, 446 cc (also L60) version of the L50 two-cylinder. 29 PS (as opposed to 26 for export market 360 cc models), a stronger differential "to transmit the generous torque" [12] and sturdier springs meant load capacity increased to 550 kg (1,210 lb). For 1975, the Carry received minor changes allowing for the fitment of new larger license plates. In December 1975, the domestic market L50s' engine lost two horsepower (down to 26) in the effort of fulfilling new, stricter emissions standards. [10]

This car was known as Suzoolate (سوزولیت) in Shiraz, Iran, where green van models were used as taxis. They were later phased out due to the pollution of its two-stroke engine. [ citation needed ]

In May 1976, responding to changed standards for the Kei class, Suzuki released the Carry 55, chassis code ST10/ST10V. It had the larger, water-cooled but still two-stroke three-cylinder LJ50 engine of 539 cc but was otherwise hard to distinguish from the preceding L50 series. The only two differences in appearance were bigger (albeit slimmer) bumpers which no longer enveloped the bottom of the front, as well as slightly altered doors with a slight bump in the swage line to accommodate the door handle. [13] [14] There was also an ST11 version with a drop-side bed. The ST10 (along with the LC20 Fronte) was the first Suzuki to enter CKD production in Indonesia, in 1976. [15] In 1977 it was replaced by the larger ST20.

Soon thereafter, in September 1976, the interim ST10 (only built for four months) was gradually replaced by the widened and lengthened ST20 pickup version which also has a longer wheelbase. [14] Marketed as the Suzuki Carry Wide 550, it now reached the maximum dimensions set for the Kei class. In November, the ST20 Van took its bow - this version was 4 cm (1.6 in) shorter than the truck as it reused the shorter rear side bodypanels of the L50 and ST10 versions. Some special variants of the ST10 (such as refrigerated versions, panel vans, etcetera) remained on sale alongside the ST20 for a little while longer until new versions could be developed and old stock be sold out. There was also an ST20K model available: the "K" refers to the "trucklike" nature of the vehicle in that it had three drop-sides as opposed to the utility version which had only a tailgate and formed sides. The ST20 range retained the three-cylinder 539 cc two-stroke engine of the ST10 and has a carrying capacity of 350 kg (772 lb). Maximum power remained 26 PS (19 kW) at 4500 rpm. [16] In October 1977, after about 187,000 had been built, the ST20 underwent a light facelift, with increased equipment and all versions (excepting the base truck) now featuring a front grille. [13]

Equipment levels were base, Standard, and Super Deluxe. The base version has no front grille, the Standard has a black grille, while the Super Deluxe features chrome trim on the grille as well as chromed hubcaps. By October 1977, the Custom Van was available in the Japanese market. Well equipped, with metallic paint, reclining fabric-covered seats, and chrome bumpers, this was aimed squarely at use as a private car. [13] This heralded the development of the future "Every" range of passenger microvans.

By 1977, the export only ST80 appeared - this version was the first Carry to be equipped with a four-stroke engine, the inline-four 797 cc F8A as recently introduced in the LJ80 Jimny. In the Carry, however, the engine only developed 37 hp (28 kW 38 PS) at 5500 rpm. The ST20 Carry was also produced in Indonesia from 1978 until at least 1983, where it was nicknamed "Turungtung" (or Truntung). [17] This is an onomatopoetic word for the sound made by the Carry's two-stroke engine. The ST20 Carry was the first Suzuki product to be built in Indonesia, where it saw extensive use as an Angkot. [18] The ST20 was only offered as a truck in Indonesia, but local body builders such as Adi Putro and Liling Putra came up with multi-seat taxi bodies and other variations. The Indonesian ST20 has a claimed 33 PS (24 kW) at 4500 rpm and 52 N⋅m (38 lb⋅ft) of torque at 3000 rpm, being unaffected by emissions regulations. [19]

In March 1979, the new ST30 series arrived. The dimensions remained the same as before, as did the two-stroke engine, although it was moved forward and now resided underneath the front seat. At the time of the ST30's introduction, the Carry had been the bestselling Kei truck in the Japanese domestic market for eight straight years. [29] For export markets, the ST90 version was equipped with the larger four-stroke F8A engine of 797 cc, entering production in August 1979. In October 1980, the domestic market Carry became available with the new 543 cc four-stroke F5A engine (ST40), although the torquey two-stroke engine remained popular. [30] Later, export models were also fitted with the 970 cc four-cylinder engine they received the ST100 chassis codes.

In December 1982, the Van portion of the Carry range became separated in the Japanese domestic market and was now sold as the Suzuki Every. [30] The Every was only available with the four-stroke engine, as the two-stroke could not pass the tighter emissions standards for passenger cars. New for May 1981 was a four-wheel drive version, originally only available as a pickup. This received the ST31/41 chassis code. A four-wheel drive van version was added in November 1982. [30]

1980 Suzuki Carry van (ST90)

1982–1985 Suzuki Carry van (ST41)

1982–1985 Suzuki Carry van (ST41)

1982–1985 Suzuki Every 4WD (ST41)

1982–2000 Changhe CH6320
(uses Suzuki's ST90 chassis)

Export models Edit

Pakistan Edit

In Pakistan, Pak Suzuki Motors, a big affiliate of the Suzuki Motor Corporation, still assembles and distributes the Suzuki Bolan, based on the ST90V version of the Carry (also known as Hi-Roof) with the three-cylinder F8B 796 cc carburetor engine with output of 37 hp (28 kW). The four-speed manual transmission allows for a top speed of 120 km/h (75 mph). As of 2021 it is available as either a plain, panelled Cargo Van with vinyl seats or as the seven-seater VX variant which features air conditioning. [31] The Bolan is widely used as an ambulance all over Pakistan and as a taxi in parts of the country. There is also a pickup version, called Ravi.

Taiwan Edit

The Ford Pronto is a rebadged Carry ST, which was manufactured between 1985 and 2007 [32] by Ford Lio Ho, a joint venture between Ford and Lio Ho in Taiwan. The Pronto was only available in the Taiwanese market, where it was introduced specifically to compete with China Motor Corporation's Mitsubishi Minicab and Sanfu's Subaru Sambar in the local minivan market. In 2007, Ford Lio Ho ceased to produce the Pronto because the engine couldn't be made to meet revised local environmental regulations.

Indonesia Edit

In Indonesia, the seventh generation Carry and Super Carry were assembled by Suzuki Indomobil Motor beginning in 1983, fitted with the well-known 970 cc F10A engine with 50 PS (37 kW). This carried the ST100 model code, and was also available as a minivan. [33] Thanks to a locally developed rear body with a longer overhang and a wheelbase extended by 10 cm (3.9 in), it was about 20 cm (7.9 in) longer than the Carrys sold elsewhere, which allowed a third row of seats to be fitted.

In 1986, it was updated with a new half-trapezium front headlight, but only lasted for less than six months [34] and was replaced again with square headlights by the end of 1986 (until the end of production in 2009) with new front and larger bumpers this model was originally sold as the "Super Carry Extra". This model, available as a van or truck, reached 3,530 mm (139.0 in) in overall length and is 1,465 mm (57.7 in) wide. These dimensions remained true until the end of Carry 1.0 production in Indonesia. Unlike most markets, Indonesian Carry trucks could legally seat three people. [35] In 1989 the Super Carry received a five-speed transmission, as well as a tachometer.

Late in the model's life, the engine was updated to meet the Euro 2 emissions standards, which took effect in Indonesia in 2007. This meant that the old F10A engine was updated with multi-point fuel injection and a catalytic converter, increasing power to 60 PS (44 kW). [35] Although removed from the regular price lists in 2006, this version of the Carry was still built to special order until 2009, alongside the larger Carry Futura (based on the eighth generation Carry). Until 1987, when surpassed by the Daihatsu Zebra and Toyota Kijang, the Carry was Indonesia's best selling vehicle. [33]

The seventh generation Carrys in Indonesia, alongside the eighth generation Carry Futura, are widely used as transportation minibuses known locally as "angkot".

India Edit

Maruti Suzuki Omni
ManufacturerMaruti Suzuki
Also calledMaruti Van
Production1984–2019 [36]
AssemblyGurgaon, India
Body and chassis
Body style4-door van
LayoutFMR layout
Engine796 cc (0.8 L) I3
Transmission4-speed manual
Wheelbase1,840 mm (72.4 in)
Length3,370 mm (132.7 in)
Width1,410 mm (55.5 in)
Height1,640 mm (64.6 in)
Curb weight785 kg (1,731 lb)
SuccessorMaruti Suzuki Versa/Eeco

The Maruti Suzuki Omni is a microvan manufactured by Suzuki's Indian subsidiary Maruti Suzuki. The first version of Maruti Suzuki Omni had a 796 cc (49 cu in) inline-three engine, same as the Maruti 800 city car. Sold simply as the Maruti Suzuki Van, this was the second vehicle to be launched by Maruti Suzuki. It arrived one year after the 800, in 1984. The name was changed to "Omni" in 1988. It received a facelift in 1998, [37] and further minor revisions in 2005, when improvements were made to the exterior and the interior, and new colours became available. [38] Later version of the Omni includes the:

  • Omni (E), released in 1996, an 8-seater microbus version of the Omni
  • Omni XL - 1999, as the Omni E but with a higher roof.
  • Omni Cargo LPG - 2004, created to answer the growing popularity of this car being used as an inter-city cargo vehicle. [39]
  • Omni LPG - 2003, same 796 cc engine, added with a factory fitted LPG Kit, authorised by the Indian RTOs (Regional Transport Offices). This makes it the most economic four-wheeler in India, as far as driving costs are concerned.
  • Omni Ambulance - A Omni E, designed for ambulance usage. This is the most common type of ambulances found in Indian cities.

The Omni could be divided into two categories: the family version and the cargo version. The newer family version has two extra seats directly behind the front seating and facing away towards the rear of the van making it an eight seater. Older versions are modified by individual owners to add additional capacity this way. The cargo version is completely devoid of back seats. Both versions have sliding back doors and hatchbacks. [40]

The Omni (E) has the following official specifications (2010): [41]

Name Vehicle specifications
Max. speed: 100 km/h (62 mph)
Initial acceleration: 0-60 km/h (37 mph) in 10 seconds
Fuel: Petrol
Fuel consumption in city: 13–14 km/L (7.7–7.1 L/100 km)
Fuel consumption on highways: 16–17 km/L (6.3–5.9 L/100 km)
Power: 37 bhp (28 kW) at 5,000 rpm
Construction: Cast iron
Displacement: 796 cc
Ignition: Multipoint fuel injection
Layout: 3-cylinder in-line
Max. torque: 62 N⋅m (46 ft⋅lbf) at 3,000 rpm
Valve train: 2 valves per cylinder
Transmission: Manual- 4-speed
Front suspension: MacPherson strut with gas filled shock absorbers
Rear suspension: Leaf spring with shock absorbers
Front brakes: Booster assisted disc
Rear brakes: Drum
Tyres: 145 R-12 LT 6PR (radial)

The initial versions were so basic that the interior dashboard even lacked a fan blower opening as a standard.

In April 2019, Maruti Suzuki announced they would discontinue the Omni after 35 years of production. The Omni was not able to meet India's updated safety and emission standards implemented the same month, which requires new vehicles to have a driver's airbag, antilock brakes, seatbelt reminders, speed warning beeps and rear parking sensors. The flat front of the Omni also prevented the addition of crumple zones. Its replacement is the Eeco.

  • Suzuki Every
  • Suzuki Super Carry (Japan) (United Kingdom)
  • Changhe Changlingwang
  • Chevrolet CMV/CMP (Central America)
  • Chevrolet Super Carry (Colombia/Venezuela) (South Korea)
  • Ford Pronto
  • Holden Scurry (Australia) (China)
  • Chang'an SC6330 (China) (United States)
  • Norkis Multicab/Suzuki Bravo (Philippines)
  • Ford Pronto (Taiwan)

The eighth generation Carry (and second generation Every) appeared in March 1985. [42] It was modernized and the range again expanded, with a more powerful fuel injected engine available on top. The chassis codes became quite confusing, with DA/DB71 used for the F5A engined model (DB signifying four-wheel drive) and DA81 for the two-stroke truck which remained available until the Carry underwent a facelift in July 1986. T, B, and V suffixes were used to denote trucks, trucks with tip decks, and vans. Beginning in late 1987, a 52 PS (38 kW) turbocharged engine was available in the Every, while the Carry truck received a three-valve, supercharged version of the F5A engine with 48 PS (35 kW). There was also a short-lived nine-valve version with 32 PS (24 kW) available for better equipped versions of the Every the regular six-valve version had to make do with 30 PS (22 kW). [43] In May 1989 the more modern multi-valve F5B engine entered the lineup it received the DA/DB41 chassis code and replaced most of the F5A engines. [42] This new engine also became available in the badge-engineered Autozam Scrum, sold by Mazda (DG/DH41).

Facelift Edit

With the rules regarding the size and engines of kei-cars being altered for March 1990, Suzuki had to update the Carry/Every which now carried the DA/DB51 chassis code. [42] The larger 657 cc F6A engine provided somewhat more power, ranging from 38 to 58 PS (28 to 43 kW), and new more rounded bodywork provided a more modern look. [44] The least powerful engine received an upgrade in the passenger-oriented Every models in September 1990, increasing output to 42 PS (31 kW) at 5500 rpm while torque went up from 5.3 to 5.8 kg⋅m (52 to 57 N⋅m 38 to 42 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm. [45] This engine became standard fitment for the lower end Carrys as well in March 1991, but only six months later the DA/DB51 was replaced by the reshelled ninth generation Carry and Every. [44]

1990–1991 facelifted Suzuki Carry truck (DA51T)

1990–1991 facelifted Suzuki Every van (DA51V)

1990–1991 facelifted Suzuki Every van (DA51V)

1990 Suzuki Every 660 PS Turbo Aero-tune (DA51V)

1990 Suzuki Every 660 PS Turbo Aero-tune (DA51V)

1990–1991 Autozam Scrum van (first generation)

1990–1991 Autozam Scrum van (first generation)

1990–1991 Autozam Scrum Turbo van (first generation)

Export models Edit

Post-1985 European market Carrys still used the 797 cc four-cylinder F8A familiar from the ST90 Carry, while Super Carrys were equipped with the F10A 970 cc four. Chassis codes are SK408 and SK410, while power outputs are 37 and 45 PS respectively (27.5 and 33 kW), top speeds 110 and 115 km/h. Heftier bumpers meant overall length was up 10 cm, for a total of 3295 mm. [46] Production of export models began in July 1985. The SK408 (sometimes called the DA11) was discontinued in October 1989. Later Super Carrys received the same 1.3 liter inline-four as fitted to the Samurai. In much of Europe this generation of the Carry was also sold as the Bedford, Vauxhall, or GME Rascal. These were built at the GM plant in Luton, to circumvent JAMA's voluntary export restrictions. [47]

In Australia, this model was sold as both the Super Carry (in ute, van, or wagon form) and as the Holden Scurry, which was not available as a "ute". [48] In Australia, the Scurry was designated as the NB series.

The Super Carry continues in production in Vietnam for local markets, as a truck or panel van, with a Euro 2 emissions compliant engine. [49] The 970 cc engine has electronic fuel injection and develops 31 kW (42 PS) at 5500 rpm. The 3,240 mm (128 in) long truck is the best selling truck in Vietnam and the engine was updated to meet the Euro 4 emissions standards in 2017. [50]

1987 Suzuki Carry van (Netherlands)

1988–1990 Suzuki Super Carry TX van (SK410, Australia)

1988–1990 Suzuki Super Carry TX van (SK410, Australia)

1992 Suzuki Super Carry Commercial TX van (SK410, Netherlands)

1992 Suzuki Super Carry Commercial TX van (SK410, Netherlands)

1992 Suzuki Super Carry Commercial van (SK410, Netherlands)

1997 Suzuki Super Carry TX van (SK410, United Kingdom)

1997 Suzuki Super Carry TX van (SK410, United Kingdom)

Holden Scurry (NB, Australia)

1999 Ford Pronto truck (Taiwan)

1999 Ford Pronto van (Taiwan)

1999 Ford Pronto van (Taiwan)

Changhe Changlingwang CH6353A (China)

1995–1999 Hafei Songhuajiang HFJ6350 (China)

Bedford Rascal Edit

Bedford Rascal
ManufacturerBedford/Vauxhall (General Motors)
Also calledVauxhall Rascal
GME Rascal
Production1986–1993 (England)
1993–1999 (Japan)
AssemblyLuton, England
Body and chassis
Body style5-door van
2-door pickup
LayoutFront mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive
Engine970 cc (1.0 L) F10A I4 [51]
Transmission4/5-speed manual [52]
Length3,295 mm (129.7 in) [51]
Width1,395 mm (54.9 in) [51]
Height1,780 mm (70.1 in) [51]
Curb weight755 kg (1,664 lb) [51]
SuccessorOpel/Vauxhall Combo

The Bedford Rascal (later Vauxhall Rascal), also built as the Suzuki Super Carry, is a kei truck and microvan that was developed as a joint venture between the American car company General Motors (GM) and the Japanese automaker Suzuki. [52] It was sold under GM's British-based Bedford marque as well as in Suzuki form. Other names were used in a few international markets, such as GME (General Motors Europe) for those continental European markets where Suzukis were generally not marketed and where the "Bedford" and "Vauxhall" brands were largely unknown.

The van was produced at the IBC Vehicles plant in Luton, England, adjacent to the main Vauxhall factory (GM's British-based passenger car marque). Alongside the Bedford, the Suzuki-branded twin was manufactured for the European market (where Bedford is a less established brand).

Sold from 1986 to 1994, the Rascal, like the Super Carry, is a small and economical van intended for many purposes. The vehicle's strengths were its diminutive size and maximum payload weight 550 kg for the van and 575 kg for the pickup. [52] The principal visible difference between Bedford and Suzuki versions is the front trim: the Super Carry has two separate plastic headlamp surrounds and the Rascal has a single full width one with "Bedford" moulded in the middle.

  • 1986: launched
  • 1990: rebadged as the Vauxhall Rascal, as the Bedford marque was being retired
  • 1993: production moved to Japan, where the vehicle continued to be made until 1999.

Rascals were mainly sold as vans pickup and camper versions were also made.

GME Rascal, for continental European markets

Rear view of Rascal pickup

ST/SL (Futura) models (ST130/SL413/ST150/SL415/ST160/SL416 1991) Edit

Indonesia Edit

  • Suzuki Carry Futura 1.3/1.5/1.6 (Indonesia)
  • Mitsubishi Colt T120SS (Indonesia)
  • Maruti Suzuki Super Carry (India)
  • Suzuki Super Carry

In Indonesia, the Carry received a redesign which made its debut in mid-February 1991. [53] This was a response to the 1989 introduction of the 1.3-liter Daihatsu Zebra somewhat larger it was now 3,700 mm (146 in) long and also ten centimeters wider than before. [54] It has a wheelbase of 1,970 mm (78 in). Overall length then grew to 3,875 mm (153 in), the width to 1,570 mm (62 in). [55] It has a 1,360 cc G13C engine, later enlarged to 1,493 cc (G15A, introduced around 2000) and then 1,590 cc. Internal codenames for these models are ST130, ST150, and ST160 respectively the ST130 Suzuki Carry Futura was also referred to as the SL413, ST150 as the SL415 and ST160 as the SL416. Beginning in 1994, the rear doors received wind-down rather than sliding windows. In March 2005, the 1.5 engine was upgraded to fuel injection rather than the earlier carburettors. Unlike the Mitsubishi version, Suzuki also offers a factory-bodied minibus version. The bare chassis version is usually converted into a microbus by local bodybuilders, for use as an angkot, or share taxi.

For the Indonesian market, the Carry Futura is also offered as the Mitsubishi Colt T120SS. The name is a continuation of the first generation Mitsubishi Delica, which was marketed as the "Colt T120" in many countries including Indonesia. When production began in 1991, it replaced the Minicab-based "Jetstar". The T120SS is based on the locally developed Carry Futura, with which it shares everything aside from the engines. [1] Overall length is 3,720 mm (3,940 mm for the "3-way wide deck" version). [56]

The Colt T120SS is available as either a bare chassis, a fixed-side pickup truck, or one where all three sides fold down, called "3-way wide deck". The engine used is either Mitsubishi's 1.3 L (1,343 cc) carburetted 4G17 or the bigger 1.5 L (1,468 cc) fuel injected 4G15. The smaller engine puts out 78 PS (57 kW) at 6000 rpm. [56] This engine had the same specs from its time of introduction in 1991 until it was replaced in 2005, except for one major difference: in 1996 it was redesigned and is no longer an interference engine. [57] The larger unit, which meets Euro 2 emission standards, produces 86 PS (63 kW) at 5750 rpm. [58] Both engines feature three valves per cylinder. The bigger engine arrived in March 2005 with 1.5-litre Multi Point Injection, when the T120SS was also lightly facelifted, with a new grille featuring a triangular central portion. [57] From 1997 to 2019, Mitsubishi Motors built 324,960 units of the T120SS. [59]

The Indonesian market Carry Futura was facelifted several times, in August 1997, March 2005 and April 2010, and again in January 2017, with a redesigned grille and bumper. The Colt T120SS only received a single facelift (in 2005).

The Carry Futura and Colt T120SS were discontinued in 2019, few months after Indonesia's enforcement of rules for Euro 4 emission standards as both manufacturers asked for an extension of the Euro 4 deadline that was set in October 2018. [60] The last T120SS rolled off the production line at PT Krama Yudha Ratu Motor plant in Pulo Gadung, East Jakarta on 22 January 2019, while the Carry Futura continues to be produced at Suzuki Indomobil Motor plant in Bekasi until February 2019.

Suzuki Carry 1.3 (SL413 pre-facelift, body built by third-party body builder)

Suzuki Carry (1997 facelift, body built by third-party body builder)

Suzuki Carry 1.5 (SL415 2005 facelift)

Suzuki Carry 1.5 (SL415 2010 facelift)

Mitsubishi Colt T120SS (pre-facelift)

Mitsubishi Colt T120SS (2005 facelift)

India Edit

Starting in 2016, Maruti Suzuki has produced a rebadged version of the Carry Futura in India as the Super Carry. [61] This model receives a 793 cc (48.4 cu in) two-cylinder engine with 32 PS (24 kW) at 3500 rpm. [62] and 75 Nm of torque connected to a 5-speed manual transmission. The minuscule engine is not able to power an air-conditioning system. [63] It is also available with the CNG-powered G12B 1.2-liter inline-four engine. The diesel engine was discontinued in March 2020 as the engine is not compliant with the Bharat Stage 6 emissions standard. [64]

Philippines Edit

The Super Carry was also imported to the Philippines from India from late October 2016, with the same 793 cc (48.4 cu in) diesel engine as the Indian version. [62] It is available as a flat-bed truck, utility van, cargo van or prepared to be fitted with Jeepney bodywork. It is 3,800 mm (149.6 in) long, with a wheelbase of 2,110 mm (83.1 in), a cargo bed of 2,384 mm (93.9 in), and can take a load of 625 kg (1,378 lb) as well as two occupants. [62] After the all-new model Carry arrived in the Philippines in 2019, the Super Carry continued to be sold alongside it.

The ninth generation Carry (and third generation Every) appeared in September 1991. [44] The 657 cc F6A engine remained from the previous generation, but an all-new bodywork was much smoother, originally with slim, small rectangular headlights. The chassis was largely unchanged for the truck (albeit with a somewhat longer wheelbase), but the vans had a considerably longer wheelbase and an engine mounted midships, just ahead of the rear axle. Chassis codes changed accordingly, and were now different for the Carry and the Every. The trucks are DC/DD51T and the vans are DE/DF51V ("DD" and "DF" for four-wheel drive versions). [44] Two different front treatments were available, one with small rectangular aerodynamic headlights and one with large, round units (used on lower-spec models).

The ninth-generation Carry received a very gentle facelift in September 1993, which meant that the front drum brakes were switched to discs on all models. Two months later the Carry Van line switched to the Every nameplate and the division between trucks and vans was made clearer yet. Another light change occurred in July 1995, when the front turn signals were changed from clear to amber and the bolt pattern was changed from 114.3 to 100 mm. This generation continued to be built until 1999. Most export markets continued to receive the previous generation Carry, with bigger engines and most commonly with van bodywork. The older Super Carry is generally more rugged than the DE/DF51, which was fitted with a coil sprung De Dion rear axle not as suitable for carrying heavy loads. In those rather few foreign markets where the ninth-generation Carry was available, it was sold as the SK306 and with a version of the 657 cc engine used in the Japanese Domestic Market. In late 1997, the retro-styled Suzuki Every C arrived. [1]

Suzuki Every 660 Turbo RZ Super Multi Roof (DE51V)

Suzuki Every 660 Turbo RZ Super Multi Roof (DE51V)

Autozam Scrum van (second generation)

Autozam Scrum truck (second generation)

  • 657 cc F6AI3
  • 657 cc F6Aturbo I3
  • 657 cc K6A I3
  • 657 cc K6A turbo I3

The tenth generation Carry was introduced in January 1999. It retained the F6A engine (albeit modernized) and was sold as the DA/DB52 T and V (Carry truck or Every van, "DB" signifying four-wheel drive). This marked the end of using "Carry" badging on vans in the Japanese domestic market. In June 1999 the DA52W (Every Wagon, only with two-wheel drive) appeared, along with the bigger Every Plus. In 2001 a version with the more powerful timing chain equipped K6A (still of 660 cc displacement) appeared, as the DA62T/V/W. This model has also been built by Chang'an (Chana) in China, as the "Star" (Zhixing) bus and truck (originally SC6350, SC1015). [1] in which they have gone through many revisions since 2009.

The Carry truck was completely rebodied in May 2002, but the existing Every Van and Wagon continued to be produced until replaced in August 2005, as the two lines continued a process of divergence begun with the introduction of the Every in 1982.

1999–2002 Suzuki Carry truck

1999–2005 Suzuki Every van

1999–2005 Suzuki Every van

1999–2005 Suzuki Every Join 4WD

1999–2005 Suzuki Every Join 4WD

1999–2005 Suzuki Every Wagon

1999–2005 Suzuki Every Wagon

2002–2009 Suzuki Carry truck

2002–2009 Suzuki Carry truck

2009–2013 Suzuki Carry truck

2002–2009 Mazda Scrum truck (third generation)

Chana-Kuayue Xinbao mini (pre-facelift)

Chana-Kuayue Xinbao mini double cab (pre-facelift)

Chana-Kuayue Xinbao double cab (facelift)

Chana Shenqi T20 (pre-facelift)

Chana Shenqi T20L double cab (facelift)

Chana Star 2 double cab (facelift)

Suzuki Every Plus (DA32W) Edit

The Every Plus, was an enlarged seven-seat MPV version of the Every (passenger version of the Carry). With chassis code DA32W It was fitted with the considerably larger 1.3 litre G13 engine. The image to the right is of the Every Plus, introduced in June 1999. The name was changed in May 2001 to Every Landy, accompanied by a facelift introducing a large chromed grille.

With Carry 1.3 badging (chassis DA32) Truck and Van versions of the Every Plus were sold in various right hand drive export markets, including the United Kingdom and Australia. The truck version was available with constant four-wheel drive. [66] The Wagon model was also sold as the Suzuki E-RV in Malaysia. It was also sold in certain other markets, such as Chile, as the Carry SK413 (truck) or as the Mastervan (van).

The Maruti Suzuki Versa is a licensed variation of the Suzuki Every Plus for the Indian subcontinent and was built by Maruti Suzuki from October 2001. It is the second van released by Maruti Suzuki since the Maruti Suzuki Omni was released in 1984. About seventy percent of the vehicle components are made within India. [67] The Versa was discontinued in late 2009, after only having been built to order in small numbers for some time. [68]

There were two basic versions of this car produced the two 8-seater DX/DX2 versions and the 5-seater STD version. The DX2 version of the Versa was equipped with twin air conditioners for front and rear. The Versa was fitted with the same 16-valve, 1.3-liter four-cylinder engine generating 82 hp (61 kW) at 6000 rpm as the Every Plus. It is controlled by a 16-bit engine management system.

The initial target audience for this vehicle were customers who planned to buy a sedan like the Maruti Esteem or a utility vehicle like Tata Sumo. The 82 bhp (61 kW) engine is located under the front seat. [69] The Versa can reach from 0–60 mph in 13.5 seconds. [69]

Maruti Suzuki Eeco was introduced in India by Maruti Suzuki in January 2010. This car is a refresh of the Versa, but equipped with a new 1196 cc four-cylinder in-line engine. The Eeco makes 55 kW (73 bhp) at 6000 rpm, 101 Nm (74 ft lb) at 3000 rpm. It is delivered in either 5-seater or 7-seater versions. [70]

Chang'an SC6320G/Chana Star

Chang'an/Chana Star (SC6320G) is a licensed variation of the Suzuki Every Plus for the Chinese market. Changan has the license due to the Changan Suzuki joint venture. The front DRG of the Star was completely redesigned, but from the rest of the body panels, the relationship with the Suzuki Every Plus was still clearly visible. Newer models of the Chana Star are still available for production as of 2020. Examples include the Chana Star 5 truck and Chana Star 3 minivan.

Further re-badged versions were sold under the Tiger Truck brand in North America.

2003 Suzuki Carry 1.3 panel van (United Kingdom)

Suzuki Carry 1.3 truck (Taiwan)

Chana Star (pre-facelift, China)

Chana Star (pre-facelift, China)

Chana Star (facelift, China)

Suzuki Mega Carry Edit

Suzuki Every fifth generation (2005) Edit

The fifth generation Suzuki Every was introduced in Japan in August 2005.

Suzuki Every PA van (DA64V)

Suzuki Every PA van (DA64V)

Suzuki Every GA van (DA64V)

2005 Suzuki Every Wagon (pre-facelift)

Suzuki Every Wagon PZ Turbo Special Hi-Roof 4WD (pre-facelift)

Suzuki Every Wagon PZ Turbo Special Hi-Roof 4WD (pre-facelift)

Suzuki Every Wagon PZ Turbo Special Hi-Roof 4WD (facelift)

Suzuki Every Wagon PZ Turbo Special Hi-Roof 4WD (facelift)

2010 Suzuki Every PA interior with manual transmission

2010 Suzuki Every Wagon JP Turbo interior with automatic transmission

Changhe Suzuki Landy (China)

Changhe Suzuki Landy (China)

Japan (DA16T/DA17V/DA17W 2013) Edit

The eleventh generation Suzuki Carry was introduced in Japan in August 2013, followed with the sixth generation Suzuki Every in February 2015.

Suzuki Carry KC 4WD truck (DA16T)

Suzuki Every PC van (DA17V)

Suzuki Every PC van (DA17V)

Suzuki Every Wagon PZ Turbo (DA17W)

Suzuki Every Wagon JP Turbo (DA17W)

International (DC61T/DN61T 2019) Edit

The widened and restyled version of the eleventh generation Carry with different front fascia, door trim and dashboard design is assembled in Indonesia by Suzuki Indomobil Motor. Larger than the kei-class Carry sold in Japan, it uses the 1.5 L (1,462 cc) K15B-C engine. It was launched at the 27th Indonesia International Motor Show on 25 April 2019 [72] and is planned to be exported to nearly 100 countries. [73] It was also launched in Thailand on 16 August 2019 [74] and in the Philippines on 26 September 2019. [75]

The Carry received a facelift on 21 January 2021. [76] [77]

2019 Suzuki Carry Flat Deck (DC61T)

2021 Suzuki Carry Wide Deck (DN61T)

Early Suzuki Carrys are popularly called "half loafs" in South Africa, referring to "half a loaf of bread" (still a staple of many South Africans). In Cape Town and Durban, many of these little vans are seen painted in bright yellow with green artwork and a chopped-off open rear end. These are part of large fleets of privately owned public transport vehicles which fit between normal taxis and city buses. Customers literally hop on the back, and pass the driver a rand or two, and simply jump off at their destination.

The Suzuki Carry has been marketed under several different badges around the world: Bedford Rascal (UK), GME Rascal (France), Daewoo Damas (Worldwide), Chevrolet Super Carry (Colombia and Venezuela), Chevrolet CMV/CMP (Central America), Holden Scurry (Australia), Maruti Omni, Maruti Versa (India), Ford Pronto, Mazda Scrum, and Mitsubishi Colt T120SS.

Daewoo Damas Edit

    (General Motors) (1992–2011) (2011–2021)
  • UzDaewoo Auto (1996–2008) (2008–2019)
  • UzAuto Motors (2019–2021)
  • AzerMash (2021-
  • Daewoo Attivo
  • Damas
  • Labo
  • Chevrolet CMP/CMV
  • Chevrolet Damas
  • Chevrolet Labo

The Daewoo Damas is a badge engineered version of the Suzuki Carry/Every produced by the South Korean automaker Daewoo since 1991. [78] It is currently in its second generation and is available in van and pickup body styles, the latter of which was marketed as the Daewoo Labo. [79] Since 2011 the Damas and Labo are sold in South Korea without branding, essentially making "Damas" and "Labo" the brands. [80]

In some export markets, the Daewoo Damas was known as the Daewoo Attivo and since General Motors' takeover of Daewoo it has been known in some markets, such as Central America and Tunisia, as Chevrolet CMV for the passenger van (Damas) and Chevrolet CMP for the pickup truck (Labo).

The Damas and Labo both come with the three-cylinder SOHC 796 cc F8C engine rather than the smaller 660 cc units originally used in Japan, to provide more power and comfort. Both the Damas and Labos are only available with a manual transmission. Air conditioning is optional. The engine was originally made for petrol but is recently only available in South Korea as an LPG-powered unit. [78]

The Damas microvan is available as a 7-seat coach, 5-seat coach, or 2-seat cargo van styles and comes with various options based on DLX (deluxe) and SUPER models. The Labo is also available in STD (standard), DLX (deluxe) and SUPER models. Two main choices of the Labo body type are the cube van and the drop-side pickup truck. The pickup has an optional electric tailgate lift.

The Damas (but not the Labo) received a facelift in July 2003, stretching the nose by 245 mm (9.6 in) to meet stricter safety regulations for passenger vehicles. This was marketed as the Daewoo Damas II in South Korea. Over the years the Labo has been equipped with a number of the various grille and headlight combinations originating with the Japanese Carry and Every variations. In January 2007, Labo and Damas production was halted as they could not be made to meet emissions regulations. Production resumed (as the New Damas) in April 2008, although now only with LPG engines for the home market. In March 2011 the "Daewoo" badging was dropped, leaving the cars without a "family name" in the South Korean market. [81]

In December 2013, production was again halted, as the Damas and Labo would not meet requirements for all motor vehicles produced after 2014 to have oxygen sensors installed. [82] The Damas and Labo also do not fulfill South Korean requirements for on-board diagnostics to be installed, although they have been exempted from such regulations. A campaign by small business owners, stoking fear of a flood of Chinese imports replacing the domestic-made trucklets, pushed the government to create an exemption for the Damas and Labo, and production recommenced in August 2014. [83] South Korean production was extended to 2020, when the government's moratorium on meeting the emissions requirement was to run out. [84] In 2019, however, the Korean government further extended this exemption, allowing the little trucks to remain in production for another year at least. [82]

VIDAMCO of Vietnam produced the Damas in complete knock-down kit until 2018.

The Damas is the predominant form of public transport in Uzbekistan. In Damas marshrutkas, generally far more than seven passengers are crammed. Local production at the newly established UzDaewoo Auto began in 1996. [85] The Damas and the Labo, alongside the Tico, were the company's first products. Local parts content has gradually increased over the years. In 2004, the Daewoo Labo truck was discontinued, but it was returned to production as the "Chevrolet Labo" in 2015. The Labo is only built in UzAuto's Khorezm Plant, in the town of Pitnak. [86] The longer-nosed Daewoo Damas II replaced the original design in 2006. [85] Subsequent to General Motors' takeover of the UzDaewoo plant in 2008, the name of the Damas II was changed to "Chevrolet Damas." Since about that time, the Chevrolet Damas has been offered in a basic Van trim or as the 7-seater Deluxe, with a colorful graphic along the flank.

Harvey Williams Cushing Papers in the Yale University Library

The Harvey Williams cushing Papers in the Yale University Library are composed of correspondence, subject files, writings, family papers, artifacts, and writings about Harvey cushing. The papers document the personal life and professional career of a medical giant and pioneer neurosurgeon. They reveal Cushing as a doctor, teacher, soldier, administrator, bibliophile, and scientist, whose diverse achievements are important to the histories of the Harvard Medical School, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, and the Yale University Medical School and Library, as well as to the history of brain surgery.

The papers document Cushing's activities in various professional organizations, his research and writing, particularly on brain tumors and on Sir William Osler, and his book collecting. The papers include a large correspondence with prominent physicians, medical educators and administrators, Cushing's classmates, students, assistants, patients, World War I colleagues, and book dealers, librarians, and book collectors. The papers also relate to the history of the Cushing family, who were early settlers in the Western Reserve of Ohio. Cushing family members served in the Civil War and the family included four generations of physicians.

On his death in 1939 Harvey Williams Cushing left his invaluable historical medical collection of published volumes and unpublished manuscripts to the Yale Medical Library to form, with the libraries of his friends Arnold Klebs and John Fulton, the Yale Medical Historical Library. Along with this library he left his personal and professional papers, family papers, numerous drawings, photographs, and artifacts. The Yale Medical Historical Library issued a short-title catalogue, The Harvey Cushing Collection of Books and Manuscripts (New York: Schuman's, 1943), to describe this vast collection.

Between 1980 and 1989, the Medical Historical Library transferred the bulk of Harvey Cushing's personal, professional and family papers to Manuscripts and Archives. The Medical Historical Library retained the bound volumes of Cushing's personal and professional papers including his diary, as well as published volumes of Cushing's books, biographies of Cushing, and other printed material relating to Cushing.

Each repository treats its Cushing holdings as a complete collection and has catalogued them as such in the Research Libraries Information Network database. For ease of description here, the papers held in Manuscripts and Archives (Manuscript Group Number 160) are designated as Part I, while Part II refers to the papers held in the Medical Historical Library.

A large number of documents in both parts were created on highly acidic wood pulp paper, particularly carbon copies of Cushing's outgoing letters. Over the years these items became embrittled and had to be treated to preserve them from further deterioration. Many items in Part I were photocopied on to preservation paper, while several volumes in Part II received conservation treatment. These items were deacidified and encased in mylar to protect them during handling. Highly acidic newspaper clippings were removed and photocopies on preservation paper were substituted in the volumes.

Through a 1990 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities to the Research Libraries Group, the Yale University Library microfilmed the holdings of both Manuscripts and Archives and the Medical Historical Library. On the microfilm the holdings of each repository are considered as parts of one bibliographic title called the Harvey Williams Cushing Papers in the Yale University Library. Portions of both Parts I and II are included in the microfilm edition. The microfilm represents yet another attempt to preserve the papers in both parts from further deterioration due to handling.

Series I, CORRESPONDENCE, includes files of incoming and outgoing letters arranged alphabetically by the correspondent's name. Series II, SPECIAL FILES, contains correspondence along with notes, photographs, clippings, and.other types of published material, arranged alphabetically by subject. This series also includes the volumes of Cushing's diaries, scrapbooks, and medical school notebooks, with loose correspondence and other material interleaved. The division of correspondence between Series I and II, between files organized by subject or by correspondent, reflects an arrangement of files developed by Cushing, his staff, and the staff of the Medical Historical Library. Manuscripts and published copies of Cushing's writings: books, published and unpublished papers, lectures, and clinic notes, are arranged in Series III, WRITINGS. Correspondence of family members, not addressed to or from Harvey Cushing, and photographs of and writings by other family members are arranged in Series IV, FAMILY PAPERS. Series V, ARTIFACTS, includes an array of objects which belonged to Harvey Cushing, while Series VI, WRITINGS OF OTHERS CONCERNING CUSHING, is composed of publications which refer to cushing's life andjor work.

The papers include some photographs of Cushing, particularly in the diaries in Part II, Series II. There is, however, no separate series of photographs in the Cushing papers. Additional photographs are held in the Medical Historical Library Portrait Collection. Additional artifacts including furniture and personal memorabilia are also held in the Medical Historical Library. These, however, are not treated as part of the Cushing Papers and have not been described here.

This finding aid includes a listing for all folder and volume titles in both parts of the papers, as the materials appear on the microfilm. A fuller description of the contents and arrangement of each series is included before the folder or volume list for that series.

In the listings for materials in Series I and II of Part I, which comprise the first 104 reels of microfilm, the reader will find cross-references to related materials in Part II. The cross-referencing is to the file folder or general subject level. Individual items are not cross-referenced. For example, the reader will find in the listing for Series I (Part I) under "Welch, William Henry" a direction to "See also: MHL, Series II." This indicates that related material is located in the Cushing Papers in the Medical Historical Library. By referring to the listing for Series II (Part II) under "Welch, William Henry" the reader will find a description of bound volumes of Welch material, as well as the reel number on which this material has been filmed. The listing for Series II (Part I) directs the reader searching "University and hospital appointments" to "See: MHL, Series II." This indicates that no file on this subject is included in the Cushing Papers in the Manuscripts and Archives Department but that there is material on this subject in the papers at the Medical Historical Library. The full descriptive listing of materials in Part II does not contain cross-references to similar materials housed in the Manuscripts and Archives Department. Any cross-reference lacking the designation "Part" or "Series" refers to another series or folder within the same part or series.

Arrangement and description of the microfilm

The arrangement of the papers on the microfilm integrates the materials from the two parts. The papers are arranged such that the matching series from each part are filmed consecutively. For instance, the papers in Series II (Part II), Special Files, follow the papers in Series II (Part I). The listing is annotated with the reel numbers on which materials appear. Reel numbers have only been placed next to the description of the first item on the film, as well as at the top of each page. Where there is a blank space in the column for reel number, the reader should glance up the column to find the appropriate reel number.

Artifacts and published material by others concerning Cushing, Series V (Part I) and Series IV and VI (Part II), are excluded from the microfilm. Additional materials which were not filmed are noted in the column "Reel No." as "Not on film." The designation "Not on film" appears next to the description for each box or volume not filmed, with the exception of those series where the entire series was not filmed. In the listing for these series, there is no column for reel number.

Part I is composed of 205 boxes (91 linear feet) of papers, while the bound volumes which comprise Part II measure 30 linear feet.

Part I is organized into five series: I. Correspondence. II. Special Files, 1886-1939. III. Writings, 1902-1939. IV. Family Papers, 1745-1940. V. Artifacts, 1889-1930s.

Part II is organized into four series: II. Special Files, 1887-1939. III. Writings, 1898-1940. IV. Family Papers, 1780-1944. VI. Writings of others concerning Cushing, 1910-1988.

Cushing syndrome and bilateral adrenal enlargement

A 51-year-old obese woman with a complex medical and psychiatric history was admitted for evaluation of bilateral adrenal nodules. She had a history of depression, psychosis and osteoporosis. A recent fall resulted in a sacral fracture. Computed tomography scan confirmed this fracture and incidentally revealed large bilateral adrenal nodules. The patient reported problems with balance, swelling in her legs, nausea, recurrent rashes and easy bruising. Her psychiatric status made an outpatient evaluation impossible, and she was admitted for further assessment of her adrenal function.

Lisa Usdan

Stephanie L. Lee

Physical exam revealed a morbidly obese woman with a blood pressure of 136 mgHg/89 mmHg and a pulse of 89 beats per minute. Her face appeared Cushingoid with periorbital swelling and rubor. Her thyroid was palpable without nodularity. Her abdominal exam revealed visible superficial veins but no striae. She had large ecchymoses on her extremities and an erythematous, scaly, and papular rash in her inframam-mary creases and groin.

Random lab tests revealed a suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) see figure 1) that showed multiple low attenuation masses within both adrenal glands consistent with adrenal adenomas. The largest mass in the right adrenal gland was 5.2 cm × 3.8 cm × 3.2 cm and measured –3 Hounsfield units in attenuation. The largest mass in the left adrenal gland was 4.7 cm × 4.2 cm × 3.9 cm with attenuation between –12 and –1 Hounsfield units.

Figure 1. Abdominal computed tomography scan of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. A. Axial image. B. Coronal Image. The red arrow indicates the bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with multiple large hypodense nodules. The green arrow indicates the kidney and L indicates the liver.

The patient was diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome from ACTH-dependent bilateral adrenal macronodular hyperplasia. The patient had a bilateral adrenalectomy that revealed massive enlargement of both glands with multiple large cortical nodules consistent with macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. The left adrenal gland weighed 145.1 g and the right adrenal gland weighed 88.9 g. She was discharged from the hospital in her usual state of health on fludricortisone 0.1 mg daily and hydrocortisone 10 mg twice daily in addition to her regular medications.

Bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome, accounting for less than 1% of all adrenal Cushing syndrome. These patients usually present at an older age with long standing symptoms. The exquisite sensitivity of exogenous ACTH stimulation of cortisol and 17-hydroxyprogesterone production reflects the increased quantity of hormone producing cells in ACTH-dependent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia may have aberrant “illegitimate” or excess eutopic hormone receptors for gastric inhibitory polypeptide, vasopressin, catecholamines, luteinizing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, serotonin and angiotensin that stimulate excess cortisol production. If aberrant adrenal receptors are present, clinically relevant screening tests should be performed, and a customized medical treatment plan can be designed to block the aberrant receptors and reduce excessive glucocorticoid production ( see table ).

As evident in this case, macronodular adrenal hyperplasia can present dramatically with extreme glucocorticoid excess. It is important to determine if the cortisol excess is an ACTH-dependent or ACTH-independent process. If ACTH-independent cortisol production is determined, the presence of aberrant adrenal receptors should be assessed as there are medical as well as definitive surgical therapeutic options for management of the Cushing syndrome.

Lisa Usdan, MD, is a Fellow in Endocrinology at Boston Medical Center.

Stephanie L. Lee, MD, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and Director of Endocrine Clinics at Boston Medical Center.

Organ disease associated with HLA-B27


Recent studies have confirmed that an HLA-B27-associated extra-ocular disorder, most commonly AS or undifferentiated SpA, occurs in three-quarters of cases of B27-associated uveitis in French [ 58] and Chinese [ 59] patients. Uveitis is frequently the first indication of a previously undiagnosed HLA-B27-associated extra-ocular disease [ 58].

In Turkish citizens, HLA-B27 + acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is more common in males and B27 − AAU in females. Unilateral or bilateral alternating AAU as well as fibrinous reaction and hypopyon formation are more common in B27 + patients [ 60].

HLA-B*2705 is the predominant allele in Brazilian patients with SpA and anterior uveitis [ 61], whereas HLA-B27 subtypes may [ 62], or may not [ 63], be important in the development of HLA-B27-associated AAU in Japanese patients.

HLA-B27 + SpA expresses its visual features mainly in the form of anterior uveitis and anterior scleritis but posterior scleritis has recently been reported in patients with the B27 haplotype, suggesting a probable association [ 64].

The long-term prognosis for vision in HLA-B27-associated AAU is favourable, regardless of frequent attacks of severe AAU [ 65]. Despite more severe inflammation and hypopyon formation, and a higher rate of recurrence of attacks, the ocular and visual outcomes are similar in HLA-B27 + AU, compared with B27 − idiopathic AU, in Korean patients [ 66]. However, the visual outcome of B27-associated uveitis is worse where there is posterior segment involvement [ 67]. Hypotonic maculopathy should be considered as a possible cause of vision loss in patients with B27-associated anterior uveitis [ 68].

Paradoxically, uveitis is milder in patients with HLA-B51 + Behçet’s disease who also possess the HLA-B27 haplotype, owing to less posterior segment involvement and complications, and a less chronic course [ 69].

Herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of infectious corneal blindness in the developed world. HLA-B27 predisposes to recurrence of herpetic eye disease and graft failure following penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic corneal scars, and prophylactic anti-viral therapy should be considered seriously in these patients [ 70]. HLA-B27 does not influence the risk of AAU following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) [ 71].

Recurrent AAU has been reported as the initial manifestation of ochronotic arthropathy in a HLA-B27 + man [ 72]. The occurrence of AAU in a male patient with HLA-B27, after recovery from the systemic features of Q fever, was thought to be a reactive complication triggered by Coxiella burnetii [ 73].

The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may participate actively in the pathogenesis of clinical uveitis as patients with HLA-B27 + uveitis have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-α in their aqueous humour than patients without HLA-B27 [ 74].


Ear involvement is not generally regarded as a complication of SpA. However, studies have shown that sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), especially at high frequencies, is common in patients with AS [ 75–78], suggesting that it may be an extra-articular feature of the disease. A reported case of SNHL in a patient with HLA-B27 + sclero-uveitis has hinted at a possible association between HLA-B27 and Cogan’s syndrome [ 79], an immune-mediated systemic disorder characterized by ocular and audiovestibular inflammation. In a Chinese series of patients with AS, autoantibodies directed against the inner ear were positive in a quarter of cases [ 75].


Although lung involvement was initially described in 1941, it has been considered as an extra-articular manifestation of AS only since 1965. In a prospective study of patients with AS without respiratory symptoms, non-specific subclinical pulmonary involvement [including altered plain chest radiograph (8%), restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests (52%) and abnormalities on thoracic high resolution CT (40%)] was common in AS but was not associated with HLA-B27 [ 80]. Whereas pooled immunogenetic data revealed an association between HLA-B27 and pulmonary sarcoidosis in Czech and Italian populations [ 81], this has not been confirmed conclusively in clinical practice [ 82].


Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases are increased in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, including SpA [ 83] and RA [ 84]. HLA-B27 has been identified as a risk factor for a cardiovascular event in RA and is associated with a decreased lifespan [ 85]. Although the risk of requiring a permanent cardiac pacemaker has been reported to be substantially increased in men carrying HLA-B27 when compared with other B alleles [ 86], in an observational study, patients with a permanent pacemaker attending a cardiac clinic were no more likely to be HLA-B27 + than controls [ 87].

Aortic regurgitation in patients with AS may be due to a combination of inflammation and dilatation of the aorta and fibrosis of the valve itself [ 88]. While aortitis is usually a feature of long-standing AS, it may also occur early and acutely in young patients with HLA-B27 and SpA [ 88]. Acute aortitis can lead to abdominal aortic aneurism [ 89] or non-traumatic dissection of the aorta [ 90] in HLA-B27 + individuals with AS.


Chronic periaortitis (CP) is a rare condition characterized by retroperitoneal periaortic fibro-inflammatory tissue, which commonly obstructs neighbouring structures [ 91]. The conditions that it encompasses include idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) and inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurism [ 91]. RPF may result from a local immune response to products of aortic atheromatous plaques with subsequent periaortic deposition of fibrous tissue [ 92]. Extra-articular fibrosis, including apical pulmonary fibrosis and fibrosis of the aortic valve and aorta, is recognized as a feature of AS. In the reported cases of concomitant RPF and SpA, patients developed SpA several years before RPF [ 92]. Around one-third to a half of reported cases of CP occurring in association with SpA have been HLA-B27 + [ 91, 93]. HLA-B27 has also occasionally been reported in black American patients with RPF in the absence of SpA, although the antigen has a low prevalence in this population [ 94]. However, the hypothesis that HLA-B27 might be a genetic risk factor for CP [ 93] was not supported by a recent immunogenetics study [ 95].


A case of myelodysplastic syndrome in a patient with AS prompted further speculation that HLA-B27 might also increase the risk of haematological diseases [ 96]. Multiple myeloma has occasionally been reported in patients with AS and it has been postulated that persistent reticuloendothelial cell stimulation due to chronic subclinical gastrointestinal infection may lead to activation and proliferation of IgA-producing plasma cells and the subsequent development of IgA myeloma [ 97].

Female patients with seropositive RA who possess HLA-B27 may be at increased risk of developing drug-induced agranulocytosis, especially if they also have ANA [ 98] and HLA-B27 alone may confer an increased risk of this complication in other individuals [ 98]. Antibody to HLA-B27 has been implicated in a case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia [ 99].


Renal involvement is rare in SpA but includes amyloidosis and GN [ 100], especially IgA nephropathy [ 101]. Eighteen per cent of patients with IgA nephropathy carry the HLA-B27 gene [ 102]. Where IgA nephropathy has been reported in association with SpA, spondylitis has usually preceded the renal lesion, whereas renal involvement has occurred simultaneously in Reiter’s syndrome [ 103].

In a study of renal transplant recipients in the USA, HLA-B27 was positively associated with IgA nephropathy-induced end-stage renal disease in African-American and white patients compared with race-matched controls [ 104]. HLA-B27 is the Class 1 antigen most closely linked with childhood minimal change nephritic syndrome in Egypt [ 105]. It is also associated with augmented cyclosporine blood availability in renal allograft recipients [ 106].


A 4-fold increased frequency of HLA-B27 has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis when compared with controls [ 107]. Possession of HLA-B27 has previously been reported to be associated with an increased risk of developing Icenko–Cushings disease [ 108] and apparently causes lower levels of glucocorticoid receptors on blood lymphocytes [ 109].


An early [ 110], but unconfirmed [ 111], report that one-third of patients with Forrestier’s disease (DISH) possessed HLA-B27 suggested a possible association between the antigen and genes controlling bone formation. This apparent increased frequency of B27 could not be explained by the rare simultaneous occurrence of DISH and AS [ 112] and no further evidence has been presented linking Forrestier’s disease with HLA-B27.

AS is characterized by both reduced (osteoporosis) and increased (syndesmophytes, joint ankylosis) bone formation. Vertebral osteoporosis is common in patients with AS and appears to be related to disease activity [ 113]. The spine is a key fracture site in AS, with the reported risk of vertebral fractures varying from 0.4 to 58% [ 113]. Although vertebral fractures appear to be linked to the duration and severity of the disease rather than to BMD [ 113], they can also occur in individuals with undiagnosed benign SpA [ 114]. In a study of family members of a patient with AS and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), several of whom also had OI and/or possessed HLA-B27, more severe osteoporosis was found in those with HLA-B27 [ 115]. Recent research involving HLA-B27 transgenic rats has shown an association with bone fragility [ 116].


As well as its recognized link with psoriasis, through association with PsA, HLA-B27 is a component of several haplotypes associated with vitiligo in Chinese Han patients [ 117]. In a Turkish study, erythema nodosum (EN) was more common in patients with IBD who were HLA-B27 + than in B27 − individuals [ 118]. This contrasts with earlier data indicating a negative association between EN and HLA-B27 in post-Yersinia ReA [ 119].


Although spinal cord and cauda equina compression may complicate cervical subluxation or lumbar canal stenosis in SpA [ 100], these neurological manifestations have not been reported to be associated with HLA-B27. While a multiple sclerosis (MS)-like syndrome was recently described in a patient with AS and HLA-B27 [ 120], MS has also been reported in a patient with HLA-B27 − AS [ 121].


A wider understanding has been gained about the role of HLA-B27 in host defence against infections and how it exerts its protective effect. Virus-specific CD8 + T cell responses play an important role in the natural course of infection. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, activated by HLA antigen presentation, especially HLA-B27, are implicated in the control of HIV replication, thereby retarding the progression to AIDS and conferring a better prognosis [ 122].

HLA-B27 also promotes spontaneous CD8 + T cell-mediated viral clearance of HCV [ 123] and is associated with a more favourable course in certain other virus infections as well, including influenza virus, EBV and HSV-2 infections [ 122].

The frequency of HLA-B27 is lowest (0%) in the equatorial region and highest (40%) in the arctic and most northerly populations [ 30]. Its geographic spread broadly follows a latitude-related gradient which is inverse to that of endemic malaria [ 124]. In Western India, Plasmodium falciparum is more likely to infect HLA-B27 + individuals [ 125]. If it confers greater susceptibility to more severe forms of malaria, the B27 gene will be negatively selected in endemic regions, thereby explaining the observed inverse relationship.

In a study of Indian patients with juvenile SpA, tuberculosis was diagnosed in 14.3% of cases of whom 60% possessed HLA-B27, suggesting that B27 positivity may also predispose to tuberculosis [ 56]. An association has also been reported between HLA-B27 and tuberculosis in Tuvinian nationals in the Republic of Tyva in Central Asia [ 126].

The musculoskeletal system is involved in 30–85% of patients with brucellosis, with peripheral arthritis and sacroiliitis being the commonest articular manifestations [ 127]. An early report from Hungary suggested that patients with chronic brucellosis who possessed the HLA-B27 antigen had a considerably increased risk of SpA [ 128]. However, while brucellosis may be an occasional triggering infection for ReA in HLA-B27 + individuals [ 129], no association was found between HLA-B27 and brucellosis-associated SpA, including ReA and spondylitis, in Peruvian and Spanish patients when compared with healthy individuals [ 130, 131].

Likewise, although the frequency of HLA-B27 was found to be higher in Turkish patients with brucellosis complicated by osteoarticular involvement, particularly spondylitis, when compared with patients without osteoarticular involvement or healthy controls, the difference was not statistically significant [ 132]. Yersinia enterocolitica pneumonia is rare but has been reported in a patient with diabetes mellitus and HLA-B27 + SpA [ 133], raising the question of whether HLA-B27 may have played a role in the infection.


HLA-B27 positivity may contribute to an increased frequency of sacroiliitis in patients with FMF [ 134]. The reported associations between HLA-B27 and diseases of different organs and systems are summarized in Table 1.

Associations between extra-articular organ disease and HLA-B27

Organ or system . Associated disease .
Definite or probable . Possible .
Ocular Acute anterior uveitis Anterior scleritis Posterior scleritis Predisposition to recurrent herpetic eye disease following corneal surgery
Aural SNHL
Pulmonary Upper lobe fibrosis Asbestosis Pleurisy Pleural abscess Bronchitis Pneumonia Pneumothorax Sarcoidosis
Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation Cardiac conduction abnormalities Aortitis, aortic aneurism, aortic dissection CP
Haematological Acute leukaemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Drug-induced agranulocytosis
Renal IgA nephropathy Childhood minimal change nephritic syndrome
Endocrine Autoimmune thyroiditis Cushing’s disease
Bone Osteoporosis
Skin Type II psoriasis Palmoplantar pustulosis Vitiligo
Immune system Attenuation of viral infections, including HIV, HCV, influenza, EBV, HSV-2 Increased susceptibility to malaria Increased susceptibility to tuberculosis
Organ or system . Associated disease .
Definite or probable . Possible .
Ocular Acute anterior uveitis Anterior scleritis Posterior scleritis Predisposition to recurrent herpetic eye disease following corneal surgery
Aural SNHL
Pulmonary Upper lobe fibrosis Asbestosis Pleurisy Pleural abscess Bronchitis Pneumonia Pneumothorax Sarcoidosis
Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation Cardiac conduction abnormalities Aortitis, aortic aneurism, aortic dissection CP
Haematological Acute leukaemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Drug-induced agranulocytosis
Renal IgA nephropathy Childhood minimal change nephritic syndrome
Endocrine Autoimmune thyroiditis Cushing’s disease
Bone Osteoporosis
Skin Type II psoriasis Palmoplantar pustulosis Vitiligo
Immune system Attenuation of viral infections, including HIV, HCV, influenza, EBV, HSV-2 Increased susceptibility to malaria Increased susceptibility to tuberculosis

Associations between extra-articular organ disease and HLA-B27

Organ or system . Associated disease .
Definite or probable . Possible .
Ocular Acute anterior uveitis Anterior scleritis Posterior scleritis Predisposition to recurrent herpetic eye disease following corneal surgery
Aural SNHL
Pulmonary Upper lobe fibrosis Asbestosis Pleurisy Pleural abscess Bronchitis Pneumonia Pneumothorax Sarcoidosis
Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation Cardiac conduction abnormalities Aortitis, aortic aneurism, aortic dissection CP
Haematological Acute leukaemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Drug-induced agranulocytosis
Renal IgA nephropathy Childhood minimal change nephritic syndrome
Endocrine Autoimmune thyroiditis Cushing’s disease
Bone Osteoporosis
Skin Type II psoriasis Palmoplantar pustulosis Vitiligo
Immune system Attenuation of viral infections, including HIV, HCV, influenza, EBV, HSV-2 Increased susceptibility to malaria Increased susceptibility to tuberculosis
Organ or system . Associated disease .
Definite or probable . Possible .
Ocular Acute anterior uveitis Anterior scleritis Posterior scleritis Predisposition to recurrent herpetic eye disease following corneal surgery
Aural SNHL
Pulmonary Upper lobe fibrosis Asbestosis Pleurisy Pleural abscess Bronchitis Pneumonia Pneumothorax Sarcoidosis
Cardiovascular Aortic regurgitation Cardiac conduction abnormalities Aortitis, aortic aneurism, aortic dissection CP
Haematological Acute leukaemia Myelodysplastic syndrome Drug-induced agranulocytosis
Renal IgA nephropathy Childhood minimal change nephritic syndrome
Endocrine Autoimmune thyroiditis Cushing’s disease
Bone Osteoporosis
Skin Type II psoriasis Palmoplantar pustulosis Vitiligo
Immune system Attenuation of viral infections, including HIV, HCV, influenza, EBV, HSV-2 Increased susceptibility to malaria Increased susceptibility to tuberculosis

Single-Purpose Warships for the Littorals

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the U.S. Navy’s large, multipurpose surface warships—nuclear-powered aircraft carriers (CVNs), guided-missile destroyers (DDGs), and amphibious ships—have been able to efficiently deliver combat power to the land from a safe sanctuary at sea. Multipurpose warships made sense 25 years ago, and they will continue to be best in situations in which the threat of attack is small. But safety is no longer assured in the open sea, and the more constricted littoral waters of many important coastal regions have become downright dangerous for these vessels.

Conducting attacks against the Soviet mainland was always a high-risk, high-reward endeavor. As the Cold War progressed, the Soviets developed a robust array of antiship missiles that grew in variety, reach, warhead size, numbers, and homing accuracy they could put big warships out of action with one or two hits. As a consequence, the U.S. Navy had to revise its method of surviving missile attacks from the armor and sturdy hulls of the battleship era. Active defenses against assaults had to be developed, including defending aircraft, surface-to-air missiles, close-in weapons, jamming, decoys, and deception. And they had to be virtually impenetrable.

Today, the ever-more-capable missile threat is even more demanding. The precision tracking, targeting, and homing capabilities of modern projectiles have enhanced the value of small combatants because they can distribute offensive power more widely than a DDG or an aircraft carrier too big to launch and recover modern combat aircraft. When ships must sail in dangerous waters, a single-purpose vessel is far superior to an open-ocean multipurpose one.

Responding to Surprise

How can U.S. Navy ships, built for extensive lifespans, stay relevant in such a rapidly changing world? American warships are programmed to last as long as 30 to 40 years to amortize the considerable costs of their multiple capabilities. This a hazardous state of affairs just consider the inaccuracies of the long-term projections we made in 1975 regarding how the now-contemporary operating environment would look geopolitically, economically, and technologically. This was well before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the rise of the People’s Republic of China, the onset of severe budget deficits, the widespread influence of cyber links and operations, and the development of robotic weapons—to name a few of the bigger changes.

The National Research Council warned about the consequences of depending on large, costly, long-lived warships in a study published in 2013:

In a cost-constrained environment, when envisioning a low-threat situation or scenarios where there is little risk of loss of life or ships being damaged, building fewer but more expensive weapon systems and multipurpose ships is economically rational. More capability can be provided at sea with fewer hulls, crews, logistics, and total life-cycle costs. When, however, there is a risk of that ship being damaged or sunk because there is a high probability of a tactical surprise attack, the reverse is true—that is, cost-effectiveness becomes “too many eggs in one basket.” A damaging hit on a DDG hull is degradation not just of the fleet’s air and missile defense capacity but also of ASW [antisubmarine warfare], antisurface, maritime interdiction operations, support for Marines ashore, and helicopter-related missions as well. Building more but less-expensive, single-mission ships may increase fleet resilience to absorb the impact of an unanticipated threat at sea, and provide more options for response through geographic dispersion as well as greater ship availability for quick modifications. 1

While the emphasis in this article is on the operational and tactical advantages of simpler, more affordable warships, the observations of the National Research Council are equally as important. Smaller ships that have resilience against technological surprise due to their easier-to-modify designs are less costly to replace than larger warships.

Perils of the Littorals

Foreign littoral waters have become an unsafe place to operate on the sea surface. 2 Although the bulk of U.S. naval action has been in coastal waters since 1950, their significance has increased with the rise of China, the continuing threat from Iran, and the recent ventures of other countries, such as Russia. In these narrow seas, early warning and constant alertness are harder to achieve. Depth of fire is lost for lack of sea room. The clutter of inlets, differing coastlines and islands, coastal shipping, fishing boats, and oil rigs are all factors that complicate both offensive and defensive tactics.

For many reasons, a single-purpose ship is far preferable to an open-ocean multipurpose ship in situations that require a vessel to sail in these dangerous areas. The advantage of the single-purpose ship can be clearly illustrated by using lost combat capabilities as the basis of comparison. Assume a notional multipurpose ship has four. These might be surface-missile warfare, antisubmarine warfare, mine clearance, and the employment of helicopters or unmanned aerial vehicles. Since there is a high probability that one modern antiship cruise missile will put either ship out of action, the advantage in missile combat is 4:1 in favor of the single-purpose ship when the multipurpose ship is put out of action in a missile battle, the Fleet also loses all its other capabilities. This is a tactical measure of combat advantage.

From an operational or campaign perspective, we must take account of design efficiency and ship endurance. The hypothetical multipurpose ship has the advantage of performing four different missions when the chance of it being lost is small. Another benefit is that one propulsion plant moves all four combat capabilities. This operational advantage can be shown by using a new metric of lost mobile combat capabilities. To do that, we must now divide both ships into mobility and combat components. Assume that the space, manning, and cost of the mobility and combat components in a single-purpose ship are the same and the value of each is one unit. If we give a multipurpose ship its same four combat capabilities and assert its propulsion capability requires only two units to move its four combat capabilities, the single-purpose ship’s lead is reduced from 4:1 to 3:1. (The lost value of the single-purpose, mobile missile ship is two. The lost value of the mobile multipurpose ship in combat capabilities is four but the mobility loss is only two. The ratio of losses is therefore now 6:2 or 3:1.)

USS John R. Craig (DD 885)

USS JOHN R. CRAIG was one of the GEARING - class destroyers and the first ship in the Navy to bear the name. Both decommissioned and stricken from the Navy list on July 27, 1979, the JOHN R. CRAIG was sunk as a target on June 1, 1980.

General Characteristics: Awarded: 1943
Keel laid: November 17, 1944
Launched: April 14, 1945
Commissioned: August 20, 1945
Decommissioned: July 27, 1979
Builder: Consolidated Steel Co., Orange, TX
FRAM I Conversion Shipyard: San Francisco Naval Shipyard, San Francisco, Calif.
FRAM I Conversion Period: March 1962 - February 1963
Propulsion system: four boilers, General Electric geared turbines 60,000 SHP
Propellers: two
Length: 391 feet (119.2 meters)
Beam: 41 feet (12.5 meters)
Draft: 18.7 feet (5.7 meters)
Displacement: approx. 3,400 tons full load
Speed: 34 knots
Aircraft after FRAM I: two DASH drones
Armament after FRAM I: one ASROC missile launcher, two 5-inch/38 caliber twin mounts, Mk-32 ASW torpedo tubes (two triple mounts)
Crew after FRAM I: 14 officers, 260 enlisted

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS JOHN R. CRAIG. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.

USS JOHN R. CRAIG Cruise Books:

JOHN R. CRAIG was laid down by Consolidated Steel Corp., Orange, Tex., 17 November 1944 launched 14 April 1945 sponsored by Mrs. Lilian Hyde Craig, widow of Lt. Comdr. Craig and commissioned 20 August 1945, Comdr. L. G. Cornwell in command.

After shakedown in the Caribbean, JOHN R. CRAIG departed Charleston 19 January 1946 for San Diego arriving 1 February. She departed 7 February to join the 7th Fleet and assist in repatriating Japanese soldiers from North China. The destroyer returned to San Diego 31 January 1947. In the years prior to the Korean conflict JOHN R. CRAIG alternated Far Eastern deployments with periods of intensive training off the California coast.

As the conflict in Korea intensified, JOHN R. CRAIG arrived in the combat zone 19 February 1951. She immediately commenced operations with Task Force 77, screening carrier strikes on enemy shore positions. During the Chinese Communist spring offensive the destroyer performed shore bombardments in the Wonsan area, knocking out enemy installations and disrupting transportation. But for two brief periods in San Diego, she continued operations off Korea during the remainder of the conflict.

Following the cessation of hostilities, JOHN R. CRAIG continued patrol operations south of the 38th parallel to insure peace in Asia. From 1954 to 1962 the destroyer engaged in exercises off the West Coast with annual deployments to the Far East.

During her 1955 cruise she took an active part in the evacuation of Chinese nationalists from the Tachen Islands. Subsequent cruises consisted of exercises with the Japanese Self Defense Force in 1957, ASW exercises, Formosa Patrol and maneuvers with the Chinese Nationalist Navy during the 1961 cruise. She arrived at San Francisco 6 March 1962 for a FRAM I overhaul and received helicopter facilities. JOHN R. CRAIG completed the overhaul 15 March 1963 and once again joined the Pacific Fleet. Following training exercises, the destroyer sailed 17 October for duty with the 7th Fleet. She immediately commenced patrol duty in the Formosa Straits. She patrolled the Formosa Straits and visited Hong Kong Subic Bay Sasebo Taiwan and Okinawa before returning to San Diego 19 May 1964.

JOHN R. CRAIG operated along the West Coast until heading back to the Far East 6 March 1965. She left Sasebo 8 April to screen MIDWAY (CVA 41) during strikes against enemy targets in South Vietnam. But for a brief run to Subic Bay, she remained on this duty until 2 July. After a visit to Hong Kong she was designated flagship for a new naval gunfire support group. During the next 20 days her guns were rarely silent as she pounded enemy targets ashore. On 11 August she headed home and arrived San Diego exactly a month later. Her service during the year won her the Battle Efficiency "E" for DesRon 1.

After operations off Southern California, she entered Hunters Point Naval Shipyard 1 December for overhaul. Ready for action at the end of March 1966, she trained out of San Diego until sailing for the Far East 28 July. On 13 September she entered the Gulf of Tonkin for plane guard duty. Ten days later she provided naval gunfire support for Operation "Golden Fleece". Next came Operations "Sea Dragon" and "Traffic Cop", interdiction of supply from the North to the Demilitarized Zone. During this duty she engaged enemy shore batteries and shelled North Vietnamese radar sites.

The destroyer departed the Gulf of Tonkin 4 December and returned home early in 1967.

John Rich Craig, born 13 September 1906 in Jacksonville, Fla., graduated from the Naval Academy in 1930 and received flight training the following year. During 1935 and 1936 he underwent submarine training. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, he commanded R-17 (SS-94). He took command of GRAMPUS (SS 207) 16 September 1942, and during the next 6 months he led the submarine on daring attacks against Japanese shipping. She sank two enemy transports and a cargo ship and damaged three enemy destroyers. While on her sixth war patrol, GRAMPUS was lost in the Southwest Pacific with all hands 22 March 1943. Lt. Comdr. Craig was awarded the Navy Cross posthumously for his extraordinary heroism.


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Watch the video: Building the USS Johnston DD-557 Fletcher Class Destroyer 1700 Scale Model Ship