18 December 1942

18 December 1942

18 December 1942

December 1942

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New Guinea

Japanese positions on the Sanananda front come under Australian and American attack but hold



Historical Events on December 21

    Battle of Curalaba: the Mapuche people led by Pelentaru revolt and inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile Mayflower Pilgrims come ashore at in Plymouth Bay, traditionally thought to be at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts [OS=Dec 11]

Event of Interest

1650 Johan de Witt installed as Dutch pension advisor of Dordrecht

Event of Interest

1784 John Jay becomes acting US Secretary of State (1789-990)

    Hue Tay Son becomes emperor Quang Trung of Vietnam 1st stone arch railroad bridge in US dedicated, Baltimore HMS Beagle sails into Bay of Islands, New Zealand The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement. 1st US skating club formed (Philadelphia)

Victory in Battle

1864 General Sherman conquers Savannah, Georgia

    Fetterman Massacre: Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians kill all 81 US Army soldiers in the worst military disaster ever suffered by the U.S. Army on the Great Plains

Event of Interest

1872 Phileas Fogg completes his round the world trip in 80 days, in Jules Verne's "Around the World in Eighty Days"

Event of Interest

1891 1st game of basketball, based on rules created by James Naismith, played by 18 students in Springfield, Massachusetts

Event of Interest

1894 Mackenzie Bowell becomes the 5th Prime Minister of Canada

Event of Interest

1898 Scientists Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium

Theater Premiere

1900 Gerhart Hauptmann's play "Michael Kramer" premieres in Berlin

    British Parliament pass two important pieces of social legislation: The Trades Disputes Bill, legalizing peaceful picketing, and The Workingmen's Compensation Act, broadening employers' liability for accidents Dutch government of De Master falls due to war budget 1st junior high school established (Berkeley California)

Event of Interest

    Unitversity of Copenhagen rejects American Explorer Frederick A Cook's claim that he was 1st to North Pole Explosion in coal mine in Hulton England, 344 mine workers dies Denmark, Norway & Sweden declare neutrality in Comende war 1st crossword puzzle (with 32 clues) printed in NY World

Film Release

1914 1st feature-length silent film comedy "Tillie's Punctured Romance" released starring Marie Dressler, Mabel Normand and Charlie Chaplin

    2,800 African miners strike at the Van Rhyn Deep mines in a bid to redress some of their grievances 10.17" (25.83 cm) of rainfall, Glenora, Oregon (state record) Red Sox trade Dutch Leonard, Ernie Shore & Duffy Lewis to Yankees for Ray Caldwell & Slim Love, Frank Gilhooey, Al Walters & $15,000

Event of Interest

1919 J. Edgar Hoover deports anarchists/feminist Emma Goldman to Russia

Music Premiere

1920 Jerome Kern/BG DeSylva's musical "Sally" premieres in NYC

    Supreme Court rules labor injunctions & picketing unconstitutional Nepal changes from British protectorate to independent nation

Event of Interest

1929 Coco the Clown first appears for Bertram Mills Circus in Manchester, England

    Giants sign former outfielder Billy Southworth as a coach Dried human blood serum 1st prepared, University of Pennsylvania

Contract of Interest

1933 Fox Films signs Shirley Temple aged 5, to a studio contract

Film Premier

1934 French film "Zouzou" premieres in Paris, starring Josephine Baker 1st black woman to star in a major motion picture

Event of Interest

1936 Bradman's 2nd consecutive Test Cricket duck! Australia all out for 80

Film Premier

1937 The first full-length animated feature film and the earliest in the Walt Disney Animated Classics series, "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs", premieres at the Carthay Circle Theatre

    Chicago Black Hawks left wing Paul Thompson becomes first player in NHL history to score a goal against his brother scores on bro Cecil of the Boston Bruins with just 9 seconds left in regulation Bruins win though, 2-1

Appointment of Interest

1939 Adolf Hitler names Adolf Eichmann leader of "Referat IV B", responsible for evictions and Jewish immigration

NFL Championship

1941 National Football League Championship, Wrigley Field, Chicago: Chicago Bears beat New York Giants, 37-9 first team in NFL championship game era (since 1933) to win consecutive titles Bears 5th title overall


Contents

The ship was laid down on 18 March 1942 at Quincy, Massachusetts, by the Bethlehem Steel Company, and renamed Wasp on 13 November 1942, shortly after the sinking of the previous Wasp. She was launched on 17 August 1943, sponsored by Miss Julia M. Walsh, the sister of Senator David I. Walsh of Massachusetts, and commissioned on 24 November 1943, with Captain Clifton A. F. Sprague in command. [1]

World War II Edit

1943–1944 Edit

Following a shakedown cruise which lasted through the end of 1943, Wasp returned to Boston for a brief yard period to correct minor flaws which had been discovered during her time at sea. On 10 January 1944, the new aircraft carrier departed Boston, steamed to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and remained there until the last day of the month, when she sailed for Trinidad, her base of operations through 22 February. She returned to Boston five days later and prepared for service in the Pacific. Early in March, the ship sailed south, transited the Panama Canal, arrived at San Diego on 21 March, and reached Pearl Harbor on 4 April. [1]

Following training exercises in Hawaiian waters, Wasp steamed to the Marshall Islands and at Majuro, Rear Admiral Alfred E. Montgomery's newly formed Task Group 58.6 (TG 58.6) of Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force (TF 58). On 14 May, she and her sister carriers of TG 58.6, Essex and the light aircraft carrier San Jacinto, sortied for raids on Marcus and Wake Islands to give the new task group combat experience, to test a recently devised system of assigning—before takeoff—each pilot a specific target, and to neutralize those islands for the forthcoming Marianas Campaign. As the force neared Marcus, it split, sending San Jacinto north to search for Japanese picket boats while Wasp and Essex launched strikes on 19 and 20 May, aimed at installations on the island. American planes encountered heavy antiaircraft fire but still managed to do enough damage to prevent Japanese forces on the island from interfering with the impending assault on Saipan. [1]

When weather cancelled launches planned for 21 May, the two carriers rejoined San Jacinto and steamed to Wake. Planes from all three carriers pounded that island on 24 May and were sufficiently effective to neutralize that base. However, the system of selecting targets for each plane fell short of the Navy's expectations, and thereafter, tactical air commanders resumed responsibility for directing the attacks of their planes. [1]

After the strike on Wake, TG 58.6 returned to Majuro to prepare for the Marianas campaign. On 6 June, Wasp—reassigned to TG 58.2 which was also commanded by Rear Admiral Montgomery—sortied for the invasion of Saipan. During the afternoon of 11 June, she and her sister carriers launched fighters for strikes against Japanese air bases on Saipan and Tinian. They were challenged by some 30 land-based fighters, which they promptly shot down. Antiaircraft fire was heavy, but the American planes braved it as they went on to destroy many of the Japanese aircraft still on the ground. [1]

During the next three days, the American fighters—now joined by bombers—pounded installations on Saipan to soften up Japanese defenses for American assault troops who would go ashore on 15 June. That day and thereafter until the morning of June, planes from TGs 58.2 and TG 58.3 provided close air support for Marines fighting on the Saipan beachhead. [1]

The fast carriers of those task groups then turned over to escort carriers responsibility for providing air support for the American ground forces, refueled, and steamed to meet with TGs 58.1 and 58.4, which were returning from strikes against Chichi and Iwo Jima to prevent Japanese air bases on those islands from being used to launch attacks against American forces on or near Saipan. [1]

Meanwhile, Japan—determined to defend Saipan, no matter how high the cost—was sending Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa's powerful First Mobile Fleet from the Sulu Islands to the Marianas to sink the warships of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance's 5th Fleet and to annihilate the American troops who had fought their way ashore on Saipan. Soon after the Japanese task force sortied from Tawi Tawi on the morning of 13 June, American submarine Redfin spotted and reported it. Other submarines—which from time to time made contact with Ozawa's warships—kept Spruance posted on their progress as they wended their way through the islands of the Philippines, transited San Bernardino Strait, and took part in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. [1]

All day on 18 June 1944, each force sent out scout planes in an effort to locate its adversary. Because of their greater range, the Japanese aircraft managed to obtain some knowledge of Spruance's ships, but American scout planes were unable to find Ozawa's force. Early the following morning, 19 June, aircraft from Mitscher's carriers headed for Guam to neutralize that island for the coming battle and in a series of dogfights, destroyed many Japanese land-based planes. [1]

During the morning, carriers from Ozawa's fleet launched four massive raids against their American counterparts, but all were thwarted almost completely. Nearly all of the Japanese warplanes were shot down while failing to sink a single American ship. They did manage to score a single bomb hit on South Dakota, but that solitary success did not put the battleship out of action. [1]

That day, Mitscher's planes did not find the Japanese ships, but American submarines succeeded in sending two enemy carriers (Taihō and Shōkaku) to the bottom. In the evening, three of Mitscher's four carrier task groups headed west in search of Ozawa's retiring fleet, leaving only TG 58.4 and a gun line of old battleships in the immediate vicinity of the Marianas to cover ground forces on Saipan. Planes from the American carriers failed to find the Japanese force until mid-afternoon on the 20th when an Avenger pilot reported spotting Ozawa almost 300 mi ( km) from the American carriers. Mitscher daringly ordered an all-out strike even though he knew that night would descend before his planes could return. [1]

Over two hours later, the American aviators caught up with their quarry. They damaged two oilers so severely that they had to be scuttled sank carrier Hiyō, and scored damaging but non-lethal hits on carriers Ryuho, Junyō, Zuikaku, and several other Japanese ships. However, during the sunset attack, the fuel gauges in many of the American planes registered half empty or more, presaging an anxious flight back to their now distant carriers. [1]

When the carriers spotted the first returning plane at 2030 that night, Rear Admiral J. J. Clark defied the menace of Japanese submarines by ordering all lights to be turned on to guide the weary fliers home. [1]

After a plane from Hornet landed on Lexington, Mitscher gave pilots permission to land on any available deck. Despite these unusual efforts to help the Navy's airmen, a good many planes ran out of fuel before they reached the carriers and dropped into the water. [1]

When fuel calculations indicated that no aircraft which had not returned could still be aloft, Mitscher ordered the carriers to reverse course and resume the stern chase of Ozawa's surviving ships—more in the hope of finding any downed fliers who might still be alive and pulling them from the sea than in the expectation of overtaking Japan's First Mobile Fleet before it reached the protection of the Emperor's land-based planes. During the chase, Mitscher's ships picked up 36 pilots and 26 crewmen. [1]

At midmorning of 21 June, Admiral Spruance detached Wasp and Bunker Hill from their task group and sent them with Admiral Lee's battleships in Ozawa's wake to locate and destroy any crippled enemy ships. The ensuing two-day hunt failed to flush out any game, so this ad hoc force headed toward Eniwetok for replenishment and well-earned rest. [1]

The respite was brief, for on 30 June, Wasp sortied in TG 58.2—with TG 58.1—for strikes at Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima. Planes from the carriers pounded those islands on 3–4 July and, during the raids, destroyed 75 enemy aircraft, for the most part in the air. Then, as a grand finale, cruisers from the force's screen shelled Iwo Jima for two and one-half hours. The next day, 5 July, the two task groups returned to the Marianas and attacked Guam and Rota to begin more than a fortnight's effort to soften the Japanese defenses there in preparation for landings on Guam. Planes from Wasp and her sister carriers provided close air support for the marines and soldiers who stormed ashore on 21 July. [1]

The next day, TG 58.2 sortied with two other groups of Mitscher's carriers headed southwest toward the Western Carolines, and launched raids against the Palaus on the 25th. The force then parted, with TGs 58.1 and 58.3 steaming back north for further raids to keep the Bonin and Volcano Islands neutralized while Wasp in TG 58.2 was retiring toward the Marshalls for replenishment at Eniwetok which she reached on 2 August. [1]

Toward the end of Wasp ' s stay at that base, Admiral Halsey relieved Admiral Spruance on 26 August and the 5th Fleet became the 3rd Fleet. Two days later, the Fast Carrier Task Force—redesignated TF 38—sortied for the Palaus. On 6 September, Wasp, now assigned to Vice Admiral John S. McCain, Sr.'s TG 38.1, began three days of raids on the Palaus. On 9 September, she headed for the southern Philippines to neutralize air power there during the American conquest of Morotai, Peleliu, and Ulithi—three islands needed as advanced bases during the impending campaign to liberate the Philippines. Planes from these carriers encountered little resistance as they lashed Mindanao airfields that day and on 10 September. Raids against the Visayan Islands on 12 and 13 September were carried out with impunity and were equally successful. Learning of the lack of Japanese air defenses in the southern Philippines enabled Allied strategists to cancel an invasion of Mindanao which had been scheduled to begin on 16 November. Instead, Allied forces could go straight to Leyte and advance the recapture of Philippine soil by almost a month. [1]

D-day in the Palaus, 15 September, found Wasp and TG 38.1 some 50 mi (80 km) off Morotai, launching air strikes. It then returned to the Philippines for revisits to Mindanao and the Visayas before retiring to the Admiralties on 29 September for replenishment at Manus in preparation for the liberation of the Philippines. [1]

Ready to resume battle, she got underway again on 4 October and steamed to the Philippine Sea, where TF 38 reassembled at twilight on the evening of 7 October, some 375 mi (604 km) west of the Marianas. Its mission was to neutralize airbases within operational air distance of the Philippines to keep Japanese warplanes out of the air during the American landings on Leyte scheduled to begin on 20 October. The carriers steamed north to meet with a group of nine oilers, and spent the next day, 8 October, refueling. They then followed a generally northwesterly course toward the Ryūkyūs until 10 October, when their planes raided Okinawa, Amami, and Miyaki. That day, TF 38 planes destroyed a Japanese submarine tender, 12 sampans, and over 100 planes. But for Lieutenant Colonel Doolittle's Tokyo raid from Hornet (CV-8) on 18 April 1942 and the daring war patrols of Pacific Fleet submarines, this carrier foray was the United States Navy's closest approach to the Japanese home islands up to that point in the war. [1]

Beginning on 12 October, Formosa received three days of unwelcome attention from TF 38 planes. In response, the Japanese Navy made an all-out effort to protect that strategic island, though doing so meant denuding its remaining carriers of aircraft. Yet, the attempt to thwart the ever-advancing American Pacific Fleet was futile. At the end of a three-day air battle, Japan had lost more than 500 planes and 20-odd freighters. Many other merchant ships were damaged as were hangars, barracks, warehouses, industrial plants, and ammunition dumps. However, the victory was costly to the United States Navy, for TF 38 lost 79 planes and 64 pilots and air crewmen, while cruisers Canberra and Houston and carrier Franklin received damaging, but nonlethal, torpedo and bomb hits. [1]

From Formosa, TF 38 shifted its attention to the Philippines. After steaming to waters east of Luzon, TG 58.1 began to launch strikes against that island on the 18th and continued the attack the following day, hitting Manila for the first time since it was occupied by the Japanese early in the war. [1]

On 20 October, the day the first American troops waded ashore on Leyte, Wasp had moved south to the station off that island whence she and her sister carriers launched some planes for close air support missions to assist MacArthur's soldiers, while sending other aircraft to destroy airfields on Mindanao, Cebu, Negros, Panay, and Leyte. TG 38.1 refueled the following day and, on 22 October, set a course for Ulithi to rearm and provision. [1]

While McCain's carriers were steaming away from the Philippines, great events were taking place in the waters of that archipelago. Admiral Soemu Toyoda, the commander in chief of Japan's Combined Fleet, activated plan Sho-Go-1, a scheme for bringing about a decisive naval action off Leyte, the Battle of Leyte Gulf. [1]

The Japanese strategy called for Ozawa's carriers to act as a decoy to lure TF 38 north of Luzon and away from the Leyte beachhead. Then—with the American fast carriers out of the way—heavy Japanese surface ships were to debouch into Leyte Gulf from two directions: from the south through Surigao Strait and from the north through San Bernardino Strait. During much of 24 October, planes from Halsey's carrier task groups still in Philippine waters pounded Admiral Kurita's powerful Force "A", or Center Force, as it steamed across the Sibuyan Sea toward San Bernardino Strait. When darkness stopped their attack, the American aircraft had sunk superbattleship Musashi and had damaged several other Japanese warships. Moreover, Halsey's pilots reported that Kurita's force had reversed course and was moving away from San Bernardino Strait. [1]

That night, Admiral Nishimura's Force "C", or Southern Force, attempted to transit Surigao Strait, but met a line of old battleships commanded by Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf. The venerable American men-of-war crossed Nishimura's "T" and all but annihilated his force. Admiral Shima—who was following in Nishimura's wake to lend support—realized that disaster had struck and wisely withdrew. [1]

Meanwhile, late in the afternoon of 24 October—after Kurita's Center Force had turned away from San Bernardino Strait in apparent retreat—Halsey's scout planes finally located Ozawa's carriers less than 200 mi (320 km) north of TF 38. This intelligence prompted Halsey to head north toward Ozawa with his Fast Carrier Task Force. However, at this point, he did not recall McCain's TG 58.1, but allowed it to continue steaming toward Ulithi. [1]

After dark, Kurita's Center Force again reversed course and once more headed for San Bernardino Strait. About 30 minutes past midnight, it transited that narrow passage turned to starboard and steamed south, down the east coast of Samar. Since Halsey had dashed north in pursuit of Ozawa's carriers, only three 7th Fleet escort carrier groups and their destroyer and destroyer escort screens were available to challenge Kurita's mighty battleships and heavy cruisers and to protect the American amphibious ships which were supporting the troops fighting on Leyte. [1]

Remembered [1] by their call names, "Taffy 1", "Taffy 2", and "Taffy 3", these three American escort-carrier groups were deployed along Samar's east coast with Taffy 3 in the northernmost position, about 40 mi ( km) off Paninihian Point. Taffy 2 was covering Leyte Gulf, and "Taffy 1" was still farther south watching Surigao Strait. [1]

At 0645, lookouts on Taffy 3 ships spotted bursts of antiaircraft fire blossoming in the northern sky, as Center Force gunners opened fire on an American antisubmarine patrol plane. Moments later, Taffy 3 made both radar and visual contact with the approaching Japanese warships. Shortly before 0700, Kurita's guns opened fire on the hapless "baby flattops" and their comparatively tiny but incredibly courageous escorts. For more than two hours, Taffy 3's ships and planes—aided by aircraft from sister escort-carrier groups to the south—fought back with torpedoes, guns, bombs, and consummate seamanship. Then, at 0311, Kurita—shaken by the loss of three heavy cruisers and thinking that he had been fighting TF 38—ordered his remaining warships to break off the action. [1]

Meanwhile, at 0848, Admiral Halsey had radioed McCain's TG 58.1—then refueling en route to Ulithi—calling that carrier group back to Philippine waters to help Taffy 3 in its fight for survival. Wasp and her consorts raced toward Samar at flank speed until 1030 when they began launching planes for strikes at Kurita's ships which were still some 330 miles away. While these raids did little damage to the Japanese Center Force, they did strengthen Kurita's decision to retire from Leyte. [1]

While his planes were in the air, McCain's carriers continued to speed westward to lessen the distance of his pilots' return flight and to be in optimum position at dawn to launch more warplanes at the fleeing enemy force. With the first light of 26 October, TG 38.1 and Rear Admiral Bogan's TG 38.2—which finally had been sent south by Halsey—launched the first of their strikes that day against Kurita. The second left the carriers a little over two hours later. These fliers sank light cruiser Noshiro and damaged, but did not sink, heavy cruiser Kumano. The two task groups launched a third strike in the early afternoon, but it did not add to their score. [1]

Following the Battle of Leyte Gulf, TG 38.1 operated in the Philippines for two more days, providing close air support before again heading for Ulithi on 28 October. However, the respite—during which Rear Admiral Montgomery took command of TG 38.1 when McCain fleeted up to relieve Mitscher as TF 38—was brief Japanese land-based planes attacked troops on the Leyte beachhead on 1 November. Wasp participated in raids against Luzon air bases on 5 and 6 October, destroying over 400 Japanese aircraft, for the most part on the ground. A kamikaze hit Lexington during the operation. Afterwards, Wasp returned to Guam to exchange air groups. [1]

Wasp returned to the Philippines a little before midmonth and continued to send strikes against targets in the Philippines until 26 October when the Army Air Forces assumed responsibility for providing air support for troops on Leyte. TF 38 then retired to Ulithi. There, the carriers received greater complements of fighter planes, and in late November and early December, conducted training exercises to prepare them better to deal with the new kamikaze threat. [1]

TF 38 sortied from Ulithi on 10 and 11 December and proceeded to a position east of Luzon for round-the-clock strikes against air bases on that island from 14 through 16 December to prevent Japanese fighter planes from endangering landings on the southwest coast of Mindoro scheduled for 15 December. Then, while withdrawing to a fueling rendezvous point east of the Philippines, TF 38 was caught in a terribly destructive typhoon which battered its ships and sank three American destroyers. The carriers spent most of the ensuing week repairing storm damage and returned to Ulithi on Christmas Eve. [1]

The accelerating tempo of the war, though, ruled out long repose in the shelter of the lagoon. Before the year ended, the carriers were back in action against airfields in the Philippines on Sakishima Gunto, and on Okinawa. These raids were intended to smooth the way for General MacArthur's invasion of Luzon through the Lingayen Gulf. While the carrier planes were unable to knock out all Japanese air resistance to the Luzon landings, they did succeed in destroying many enemy planes, and thus reduced the air threat to manageable proportions. [1]

1945 Edit

On the night after the initial landings on Luzon, 9 January 1945, Halsey took TF 38 into the South China Sea for a week's rampage in which his ships and planes took a heavy toll of Japanese shipping and aircraft before they retransited Luzon Strait on 16 January 1945 and returned to the Philippine Sea. Bad weather prevented Halsey's planes from going aloft for the next few days but on 21 January 1945, they bombed Formosa, the Pescadores, and the Sakishimas. The following day, the aircraft returned to the Sakishimas and the Ryūkyūs for more bombing and reconnaissance. The overworked Fast Carrier Task Force then headed for Ulithi and entered that lagoon on 26th. [1] [2]

While the flattops were catching their breath at Ulithi, Admiral Spruance relieved Halsey in command of the fleet, which was thereby transformed on 3–5th. The metamorphosis also entailed Mitscher's replacing McCain and Clark's resuming command of TG 58.1—still Wasp ' s task group. [1]

The next major operation dictated by Allied strategy was the capture of Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands. Iwo was needed as a base for fighter planes to escort B-29 Superfortress bombers from the Marianas attacking the Japanese home islands, and as an emergency landing point for crippled planes. TF 58 sortied on 10 February, held rehearsals at Tinian, and then headed for Japan. [1]

Fighter planes took off from the carriers before dawn on 16 February to clear the skies of Japanese aircraft. They succeeded in this mission, but Wasp lost several of her fighters during the sweep. Bombing sorties, directed primarily at aircraft factories in Tokyo, followed, but clouds hid many of these plants, forcing some planes to drop their bombs on secondary targets. Bad weather, which also hampered Mitscher's fliers during raids the next morning, prompted him to cancel strikes scheduled for the afternoon and head the task force west. [1]

During the night, Mitscher turned the carriers toward the Volcano Islands to be on hand to provide air support for the Marines who would land on beaches of Iwo Jima on the morning of 19 February.

For the next few days, planes from the American carriers continued to assist the Marines who were engaged in a bloody struggle to wrest the island from its fanatical defenders. On 23 February, Mitscher led his carriers back to Japan for more raids on Tokyo. Planes took off on the morning of 25 February, but when they reached Tokyo, they again found their targets obscured by clouds. Moreover, visibility was so bad the next day that raids on Nagoya were called off, and the carriers steamed south toward the Ryūkyūs to bomb and reconnoiter Okinawa, the next prize to be taken from the Japanese Empire. Planes left the carriers at dawn on 1 March, and throughout the day, they hammered and photographed the islands of the Ryūkyū group. Then, after a night bombardment by surface ships, TF 58 set a course for the Carolines and anchored in Ulithi lagoon on March 4. [1]

Damaged as she was, Wasp recorded—from 17 to 23 March—what was often referred to as the busiest week in flattop history. [1] In these seven days, Wasp accounted for 14 enemy planes in the air, destroyed six more on the ground, scored two 500 lb (230 kg) bomb hits on each of two Japanese carriers, dropped two 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs on a Japanese battleship, put one 1,000 lb bomb on another battleship, hit a heavy cruiser with three 500 lb missiles, dropped another 1,000 lb bomb on a big cargo ship, and heavily strafed "and probably sank" a large Japanese submarine. During this week, Wasp was under almost continuous attack by shore-based aircraft, and experienced several close kamikaze attacks. The carrier's gunners fired more than 10,000 rounds at the determined Japanese attackers. [1]

In spite of valiant efforts of her gunners, on 19 March 1945, Wasp was hit with a 500-pound armor-piercing bomb. The bomb penetrated the flight deck and the armor-plated hangar deck, and exploded in the crew's galley. Many of her shipmates were having breakfast after being at general quarters all night. The blast disabled the number-four fire room. Around 102 crewmen were lost. Despite the losses, Wasp continued operations with the Task Group and the air group was carrying out flight operations 27 minutes after the damage. [3] [4]

On 13 April 1945, Wasp returned to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington, and had the damage caused by the bomb hit repaired. Once whole again, she steamed to Hawaii, and after a brief sojourn at Pearl Harbor, headed toward the western Pacific on 12 July 1945. Wasp conducted a strike at Wake Island and paused briefly at Eniwetok before rejoining the rampaging Fast Carrier Task Force. In a series of strikes, unique in the almost complete absence of enemy airborne planes, Wasp pilots struck Yokosuka Naval Base near Tokyo, numerous airfields, and hidden manufacturing centers. On 9 August, a kamikaze plane swooped down at the carrier, but an alert gunner, who was cleaning his gun at the time, started shooting at the airplane. He shot straight through the windshield and killed the pilot, but the plane kept on coming. Next, he shot off a wing of the airplane, causing it to veer off to the side, missing the ship.

Then, on 15 August, when the fighting should have been over, two Japanese planes tried to attack Wasp ' s task group. Fortunately, Wasp pilots were still flying on combat air patrol and sent both enemies smoking into the sea. This was the last time Wasp pilots and gunners were to tangle with the Japanese.

On 25 August 1945, a severe typhoon, with winds reaching 78 kn (140 km/h), engulfed Wasp and stove in about 30 ft (9 m) of her bow. The carrier, despite the hazardous job of flying from such a shortened deck, continued to launch her planes on missions of mercy or patrol as they carried food, medicine, and long-deserved luxuries to American prisoners of war at Narumi, near Nagoya.

The ship returned to Boston for Navy Day, 27 October 1945. On 30 October, Wasp moved to the naval shipyard in New York, to have extra accommodations installed for transportation of troops returning from the Pacific. This work was completed on 15 November and enabled her to accommodate some 5,500 enlisted passengers and 400 officers.

Post-war Edit

1947–1951 Edit

After receiving the new alterations, Wasp was assigned temporary duty as an Operation Magic Carpet troop transport, bringing Italian POWs back to Italy. [ citation needed ] On 17 February 1946, Wasp ran aground off the coast of New Jersey. [5] On 17 February 1947, she was placed out of commission in reserve, attached to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

In the summer of 1948, Wasp was taken out of the reserve fleet and placed in the New York Naval Shipyard for refitting and alterations to enable her to accommodate the larger, heavier, and faster planes of the jet age. Upon the completion of this conversion, the ship was recommissioned on 10 September 1951.

1951–1955 Edit

Wasp reported to the Atlantic Fleet in November 1951 and began a period of shakedown training which lasted until February 1952. After returning from the shakedown cruise, she spent a month in the New York Naval Shipyard preparing for duty in distant waters.

On 26 April 1952, Wasp collided with destroyer minesweeper Hobson while conducting night flying operations en route to Gibraltar. Hobson lost 176 of the crew, including her skipper. Rapid rescue operations saved 52 men. Wasp sustained no personnel casualties, but her bow was torn by a 75-foot saw-tooth rip.

The carrier proceeded to Bayonne, New Jersey, for repairs, and after she entered drydock there, the bow of aircraft carrier Hornet (CV-12)—then undergoing conversion—was removed and floated by barge from Brooklyn, New York, and fitted into position on Wasp, replacing the badly shattered forward end of the ship. This remarkable task was completed in only 10 days, enabling the carrier to get underway to cross the Atlantic.

On 2 June 1952, Wasp relieved Tarawa at Gibraltar and joined Carrier Division 6 in the Mediterranean Sea. After conducting strenuous flight operations between goodwill visits to many Mediterranean ports, Wasp was relieved at Gibraltar on 5 September by Leyte.

After taking part in the NATO Exercise Mainbrace at Greenock, Scotland, and enjoying a liberty period at Plymouth, Wasp headed home and arrived at Norfolk early on the morning of 13 October 1952.

On 7 November 1952, Wasp entered the New York Naval Shipyard to commence a seven-month yard period to prepare her for a world cruise which was to bring her into the Pacific Fleet once more. After refresher training in the Caribbean, Wasp departed Norfolk on 16 September 1953 to participate in the North Atlantic NATO Exercise "Mariner" before entering the Mediterranean. [1]

After transiting the Suez Canal and crossing the Indian Ocean, making port in Columbo, Ceylon, the carrier made a brief visit to the Philippines and onto Japan and then conducted strenuous operations with the famed TF 77. While operating in the western Pacific, she made port calls at Hong Kong, Manila, Yokosuka, and Sasebo. [1]

On 10 January 1954, China's Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek spent more than four hours on board Wasp watching simulated air war maneuvers in Formosan waters. On 12 March, President Ramon Magsaysay of the Republic of the Philippines came on board to observe air operations as a guest of American Ambassador Raymond A. Spruance. Wasp operated out of Subic Bay, Philippines, for a time, then sailed for Japan, where in April 1954, she was relieved by Boxer and sailed for her new home port of San Diego.

Wasp spent the next few months preparing for another tour of the Orient. She departed the United States in September 1954 and steamed to the Far East, visiting Pearl Harbor and Iwo Jima en route. She relieved Boxer in October 1954 and engaged in air operations in the South China Sea with Carrier Task Group 70.2. Wasp visited the Philippine Islands in November and December and proceeded to Japan early in 1955 to join TF77. While operating with TF77, Wasp provided air cover for the evacuation of the Tachen Islands by the Chinese Nationalists. During this evacuation on 9 February 1955, an AD-5W USN/VC-11 strayed over ROC territory and was shot down. While flying an antisubmarine patrol mission from Wasp (CVA 18), this aircraft ditched after sustaining damage from antiaircraft fire when it overflew Chinese territory. The three-man crew was rescued by Nationalist Chinese patrol boats. After the Tachen evacuation, Wasp stopped at Japan before returning to San Diego in April. She entered the San Francisco Naval Shipyard in May for a seven-month conversion and overhaul. On 1 December, the carrier returned to duty displaying a new angled flight deck and a hurricane bow. As 1955 ended, Wasp had returned to San Diego and was busily preparing for another Far Eastern tour.

1956–1960 Edit

After training during the early months of 1956, Wasp departed San Diego on 23 April for another cruise to the Far East with Carrier Air Group 15 embarked. She stopped at Pearl Harbor to undergo inspection and training, and then proceeded to Guam, where she arrived in time for the Armed Forces Day ceremonies on 14 May. En route to Japan in May, she joined TF 77 for Operation Sea Horse, a five-day period of day and night training for the ship and air group. The ship arrived at Yokosuka on 4 June, visited Iwakuni, Japan, then steamed to Manila for a brief visit. Following a drydock period at Yokosuka, Wasp again steamed south to Cubi Point, Philippine Islands, for the commissioning of the new naval air station there. Carrier Air Group 15 provided an air show for President Magsaysay and Admiral Arthur Radford. During the third week of August, Wasp was at Yokosuka enjoying what was scheduled to be a fortnight's stay, but she sailed a week early to aid other ships in searching for survivors of a Navy patrol plane which had been shot down on 23 August off the coast of mainland China. After a futile search, the ship proceeded to Kobe, Japan, and made a final stop at Yokosuka before leaving the Far East.

Wasp returned to San Diego on 15 October and while there was reclassified an antisubmarine warfare aircraft carrier CVS-18, effective on 1 November 1956. She spent the last days of 1956 in San Diego preparing for her transfer to the east coast.

Wasp left San Diego on the last day of January 1957, rounded Cape Horn for operations in the South Atlantic and Caribbean Sea, then proceeded to Boston, where she arrived on 21 March. The carrier came into Norfolk, Virginia, on 6 April to embark members of her crew from the Antisubmarine Warfare School. The carrier spent the next few months in tactics along the Eastern Seaboard and in the waters off Bermuda before returning to Boston on 16 August.

On 3 September, Wasp got underway to participate in NATO Operations Seaspray and Strikeback, which took her to the coast of Scotland and simulated nuclear attacks and counterattacks on 130 different land bases. The carrier returned to Boston on 23 October 1957 and entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for a major overhaul, which was not completed until 10 March 1958 when she sailed for antisubmarine warfare practice at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. Upon returning to Boston on 29 April and picking up air squadrons at Naval Air Station Quonset Point, Rhode Island, on 12 May, she became the hub of TF 66, a special antisubmarine group of the 6th Fleet.

The carrier began her Atlantic crossing on 12 May and sailed only a few hundred miles when trouble flared in Lebanon. Wasp arrived at Gibraltar on 21 May and headed east, making stops at Souda Bay, Crete, Rhodes, and Athens. Wasp next spent 10 days at sea conducting a joint Italian-American antisubmarine warfare exercise in the Tyrrhenian Sea off Sardinia. On 15 July, the carrier put to sea to patrol waters off Lebanon. Her Marine helicopter transport squadron left the ship five days later to set up camp at the Beirut International Airport. They flew reconnaissance missions and transported the sick and injured from Marine battalions in the hills to the evacuation hospital at the airport. She continued to support forces ashore in Lebanon until 17 September 1958, when she departed Beirut Harbor, bound for home. She reached Norfolk on 7 October, unloaded supplies, and then made a brief stop at Quonset Point before arriving in her home port of Boston on 11 October.

Four days later, Wasp became the flagship of Task Group Bravo, one of two new antisubmarine defense groups formed by the commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet. Wasp ' s air squadrons and seven destroyers were supported by shore-based seaplane patrol aircraft. She sailed from Quonset Point on 26 November for a 17-day cruise in the North Atlantic. This at-sea period marked the first time her force operated together as a team. The operations continued day and night to coordinate and develop the task group's team capabilities until she returned to Boston on 13 December 1958 and remained over the Christmas holiday season.

Wasp operated with Task Group Bravo throughout 1959, cruising along the Eastern Seaboard conducting operations at Norfolk, Bermuda, and Quonset Point. The ship was heavily damaged by an explosion and subsequent fires on 18 August 1959, when a helicopter engine exploded while being tested in hangar bay number one. The fires required two hours to control. At the time of the accident, Wasp was carrying nuclear weapons. In the first 30 minutes as the fires burned out of control and the forward magazines were flooded, preliminary preparations were also made to flood the nuclear weapon magazine. This was not done, however, and 30 minutes later, the nuclear weapon magazine reported no significant rise in temperature. [6]

On 27 February 1960, Wasp entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for overhaul. In mid-July, the carrier was ordered to the South Atlantic, where she stood by when civil strife broke out in the newly independent Congo and operated in support of the United Nations airlift. She returned to her home port on 11 August and spent the remainder of the year operating out of Boston with visits to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for refresher training and exercises conducted in the Virginia Capes operating areas and the Caribbean operating areas. The carrier returned to Boston on 10 December and remained in port there into the New Year.

1961–1965 Edit

On 9 January 1961, Wasp sailed for the Virginia Capes operating area and devoted the first half of 1961 to exercises there, at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and at Nova Scotia. On 9 June, Wasp got underway from Norfolk, for a three-month Mediterranean cruise. The ship conducted exercises at Augusta Bay, Sicily Barcelona, Spain San Remo and La Spezia, Italy Aranci Bay, Sardinia Genoa, Italy and Cannes, France, and returned to Boston on 1 September. The carrier entered the Boston Naval Shipyard for an interim overhaul and resumed operations on 6 November 1961.

After loading food, clothing, and equipment, Wasp spent the period 11–18 January 1962 conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises and submarine surveillance off the East Coast. After a brief stop at Norfolk, the ship steamed on to further training exercises and anchored off Bermuda 24–31 January. Wasp then returned to her home port.

On 17 February, a delegation from the Plimoth Plantation presented a photograph of the Mayflower II to Captain Brewer, who accepted this gift for Wasp's "People to People" effort in the forthcoming European cruise.

On 18 February, Wasp departed Boston, bound for England, and arrived at Portsmouth on 1 March. On 16 March, the carrier arrived at Rotterdam, Netherlands, for a week's goodwill visit.

From 22 to 30 March, Wasp traveled to Greenock, Scotland, thence to Plymouth. On 17 April, Captain Brewer presented Alderman A. Goldberg, Lord Mayor of Plymouth, the large picture of Mayflower II as a gift from the people of Plymouth, Massachusetts. On 5 May, Wasp arrived at Kiel, West Germany, and became the first aircraft carrier to ever visit that port. The ship made calls at Oslo, Reykjavík, and Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland and Labrador, before returning to Boston, Massachusetts, on 16 June.

From August through October, Wasp visited Newport, Rhode Island, New York City, and Naval Weapons Station Earle in New Jersey, then conducted a dependents' cruise, as well as a reserve cruise, and visitors cruises. On 1 November, Wasp used her capabilities when she responded to a call from President John F. Kennedy and actively participated in the Cuban blockade. After tension relaxed, the carrier returned to Boston on 22 November for upkeep work, and on 21 December, she sailed to Bermuda with 18 midshipmen from Boston-area universities. Wasp returned to Boston on 29 December and finished out the year there.

The early part of 1963 had Wasp conducting antisubmarine warfare exercises off the Virginia Capes and steaming along the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica in support of the presidential visit. On 21 March, President Kennedy arrived at San José for a conference with presidents of six Central American nations. After taking part in fleet exercises off Puerto Rico, the carrier returned to Boston on 4 April. From 11 to 18 May, Wasp took station off Bermuda as a backup recovery ship for Major Gordon Cooper's historic Mercury space capsule recovery. The landing occurred as planned in the mid-Pacific near Midway Atoll, and carrier Kearsarge picked up Cooper and his Faith 7 spacecraft. Wasp then resumed antisubmarine warfare exercises along the Atlantic Seaboard and in the Caribbean until she underwent overhaul in the fall of 1963 for Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization overhaul in the Boston Naval Shipyard.

In March 1964, the carrier conducted sea trials out of Boston. During April, she operated out of Norfolk and Narragansett Bay. She returned to Boston on 4 May and remained there until 14 May, when she got underway for refresher training in waters between Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, and Kingston, Jamaica, before returning to her home port on 3 June 1964. [1]

On 21 July 1964, Wasp began a round-trip voyage to Norfolk and returned to Boston on 7 August. She remained there through 8 September, when she headed, via the Virginia Capes operating area, to Valencia, Spain. She then cruised the Mediterranean, visiting ports in Spain, France, and Italy, and returned home on 18 December.

The carrier remained in port until 8 February 1965, and sailed for fleet exercises in the Caribbean. Operating along the Eastern Seaboard, she recovered the Gemini IV astronauts James McDivitt and Ed White and their spacecraft on 7 June after splashdown. Gemini IV was the mission of the first American to walk in space, Ed White. During the summer, the ship conducted search and rescue operations for an Air Force C-121 plane which had gone down off Nantucket. Following an orientation cruise for 12 congressmen on 20–21 August, Wasp participated in joint training exercises with German and French forces. From 16 to 18 December, the carrier recovered the astronauts of Gemini VI-A, Wally Schirra and Thomas P. Stafford and its sister craft, Gemini VII, Frank Borman and Jim Lovell—the participants involved in the first-ever manned space rendezvous—after their respective splashdowns, and then returned to Boston on 22 December to finish out the year.

1966–1967 Edit

On 24 January 1966, Wasp departed Boston for fleet exercises off Puerto Rico. En route, heavy seas and high winds caused structural damage to the carrier. She put into Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, on 1 February to determine the extent of her damages and effect as much repair as possible. Engineers flown from Boston decided that the ship could cease "Springboard" operations early and return to Boston. The ship conducted limited antisubmarine operations from 6–8 February prior to leaving the area. She arrived at Boston on 18 February and was placed in restricted availability until 7 March, when her repair work was completed.

Wasp joined in exercises in the Narragansett Bay operating areas. While the carrier was carrying out this duty, a television film crew from the National Broadcasting Company was flown to Wasp on 21 March and stayed on the ship during the remainder of her period at sea, filming material for a special color television show to be presented on Armed Forces Day.

The carrier returned to Boston on 24 March 1966 and was moored there until 11 April. On 27 March, Doctor Ernst Lemberger, the Austrian Ambassador to the United States, visited the ship. On 18 April, the ship embarked several guests of the Secretary of the Navy and set courses for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. She returned to Boston on 6 May. A week later, the veteran flattop sailed to take part in the recovery of the Gemini IX spacecraft. Embarked in Wasp were some 66 persons from NASA, the television industry, media personnel, an underwater demolition recovery team, and a Defense Department medical team. On 6 June, she recovered astronauts Lt. Col. Thomas P. Stafford and Lieutenant Commander Eugene Cernan and flew them to Cape Kennedy. Wasp returned their capsule to Boston.

Wasp participated in ASWEX III, an antisubmarine exercise which lasted from 20 June through 1 July 1966. She spent the next 25 days in port at Boston for upkeep. On the 25th, the carrier got underway for ASWEX IV. During this exercise, the Soviet intelligence collection vessel, Agi Traverz, entered the operation area, necessitating a suspension of the operation and eventual repositioning of forces. The exercise was terminated on 5 August. She then conducted a dependents' day cruise on 8–9 August, and orientation cruises on 10, 11, and 22 August. After a two-day visit to New York, Wasp arrived in Boston on 1 September and underwent upkeep until 19 September. From that day to 4 October, she conducted hunter/killer operations with the Royal Canadian Navy aircraft embarked.

Following upkeep at Boston, the ship participated in the Gemini XII recovery operation from 5 to 18 November 1966. The recovery took place on 15 November when the space capsule splashed down within 3 mi (5 km) of Wasp. Captain James A. Lovell and Major Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin were lifted by helicopter hoist to the deck of Wasp and there enjoyed two days of celebration. Wasp arrived at Boston on 18 November with the Gemini XII spacecraft on board. After off-loading the special Gemini support equipment, Wasp spent 10 days making ready for her next period at sea.

On 28 November Wasp departed Boston to take part in the Atlantic Fleet's largest exercise of the year, Lantflex-66, in which more than 100 US ships took part. The carrier returned to Boston on 16 December, where she remained through the end of 1966.

Wasp served as carrier qualification duty ship for the Naval Air Training Command from 24 January to 26 February 1967 and conducted operations in the Gulf of Mexico and off the east coast of Florida. Noteworthy during this period was the celebration of her 58,000th carrier landing on 10 February 1967 as Ensign Donald Koch carrier qualified with two touch-and-gos and six arrested landings in a T-28C. She called at New Orleans for Mardi Gras 4–8 February, at Pensacola on 11 and 12 February, and at Mayport, Florida, on 19 and 20 February. Returning to Boston a week later, she remained in port until 19 March, when she sailed for Springboard operations in the Caribbean. On 24 March, Wasp joined Salamonie for an underway replenishment, but suffered damage during a collision with the oiler. After making repairs at Roosevelt Roads, she returned to operations on 29 March and visited Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, and participated in the celebration from 30 March to 2 April which marked the 50th anniversary of the purchase of the Virgin Islands by the United States from Denmark. Wasp returned to Boston on 7 April, remained in port four days, then sailed to Earle, New Jersey, to offload ammunition prior to overhaul. She visited New York for three days, then returned to the Boston Naval Shipyard and began an overhaul on 21 April 1967, which was not completed until early 1968.

1968–1970 Edit

Wasp completed her cyclical overhaul and conducted postrepair trials throughout January 1968. Returning to the Boston Naval Shipyard on 28 January, the ship made ready for two months of technical evaluation and training which began early in February.

Five weeks of refresher training for Wasp began on 28 February, under the operational control of Commander, Fleet Training Group, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. On 30 March, Wasp steamed north and was in Boston 6–29 April for routine upkeep and minor repairs. She then departed for operations in the Bahamas and took part in Fixwex C, an exercise off the Bermuda coast. The carrier set course for home on 20 May, but left five days later to conduct carrier qualifications for students of the Naval Air Training Command in the Jacksonville, Florida, operations area.

On 12 June, Wasp and Truckee had a minor collision during an underway replenishment. The carrier returned to Norfolk, where an investigation into the circumstances of the collision was conducted. On 20 June, Wasp got underway for Boston, where she remained until 3 August when she moved to Norfolk to take on ammunition.

On 15 June, Wasp ' s home port was changed to Quonset Point, RI, and she arrived there on 10 August to prepare for overseas movement. Ten days later, the carrier got underway for a deployment in European waters. The northern European portion of the cruise consisted of several operational periods and port visits to Portsmouth, England Firth of Clyde, Scotland Hamburg, Germany and Lisbon, Portugal. Wasp, as part of TG 87.1, joined in the NATO Exercise Silvertower, the largest combined naval exercise in four years. Silvertower brought together surface, air, and subsurface units of several NATO navies.

On 25 October 1968, the carrier entered the Mediterranean, and the following day, became part of TG 67.6. After a port visit to Naples, Italy, Wasp departed on 7 November to conduct antisubmarine warfare exercises in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Levantine Basin, and Ionian Basin. After loading aircraft in both Taranto and Naples, Italy, Wasp visited Barcelona, Spain, and Gibraltar. On 19 December, the ship returned to Quonset Point, and spent the remainder of 1968 in port.

Wasp began 1969 in her home port of Quonset Point. Following a yard period which lasted from 10 January through 17 February, the carrier conducted exercises as part of the White Task Group in the Bermuda operating area. The ship returned to Quonset Point on 6 March and began a month of preparations for overseas movement.

On 1 April 1969, Wasp sailed for the eastern Atlantic and arrived at Lisbon, Portugal, on 16 April. From 21 to 26 April, she took part in joint Exercise Trilant, which was held with the navies of the United States, Spain, and Portugal. One of the highlights of the cruise occurred on 15 May, as Wasp arrived at Portsmouth, England, and served as flagship for TF 87, representing the United States in a NATO review by Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip in which 64 ships from the 11 NATO countries participated.

After conducting exercises and visiting Rotterdam, Oslo, and Copenhagen, Wasp headed home on 30 June, and but for a one-day United Fund cruise on 12 August, remained at Quonset Point until 24 August. The period from 29 August to 6 October was devoted to alternating operations between Corpus Christi, Texas, for advanced carrier qualifications, and Pensacola for basic qualifications, with in-port periods at Pensacola.

A period of restricted availability began on 10 October and was followed by operations in the Virginia Capes area until 22 November. In December, Wasp conducted a carrier qualification mission in the Jacksonville operations area which lasted through 10 December. The ship arrived back at Quonset Point on 13 December and remained there for the holidays.

The carrier welcomed 1970 moored in her home port of Quonset Point, but traveled over 40,000 mi (60,000 km) and was away from home port 265 days. On 4 January, she proceeded to Earle, NJ, and offloaded ammunition prior to entering the Boston Naval Shipyard for a six-week overhaul on 9 January.

The carrier began a three-week shakedown cruise on 16 March, but returned to her home port on 3 April and began preparing for an eastern Atlantic deployment. Wasp reached Lisbon on 25 May 1970 and dropped anchor in the Tagus River. A week later, the carrier got underway to participate in NATO Exercise Night Patrol with units from Canada, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. On 8 June, Wasp proceeded to Rota, Spain, to embark a group of midshipmen for a cruise to Copenhagen. During exercises in Scandinavian waters, the carrier was shadowed by Soviet naval craft and aircraft. The ship departed Copenhagen on 26 June, and three days later, crossed the Arctic Circle.

On 13 July 1970, Wasp arrived at Hamburg, Germany, and enjoyed the warmest welcome received in any port of the cruise. A Visitors' Day was held, and over 15,000 Germans were recorded as visitors to the carrier. After calls at Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, Wasp got underway on 10 August for operating areas in the Norwegian Sea. The carrier anchored near Plymouth on 28 August, and two days later, sailed for her home port.

Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 8 September and remained there through 11 October, when she got underway to offload ammunition at Earle, prior to a period of restricted availability at the Boston Naval Shipyard beginning on 15 October. The work ended on 14 December after reloading ammunition at Earle, Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 19 December to finish out 1970.

1971–1972 Edit

On 14 January 1971, Wasp departed Quonset Point with Commander, ASWGRU 2, CVSG-54 and Detachment 18 from Fleet Training Group, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, embarked. After refresher training at Bermuda, she stopped briefly at Rota, then proceeded to the Mediterranean for participation in the National Week VIII exercises with several destroyers for the investigation of known Soviet submarine operating areas. On 12 February, Secretary of the Navy John Chafee visited the carrier accompanied by Commander, 6th Fleet, Vice Admiral Isaac C. Kidd Jr.

Wasp detached early from the National Week exercise on 15 February to support John F. Kennedy as she steamed toward Gibraltar. Soviet ships trailed Wasp and John F. Kennedy until they entered the Strait of Sicily when the Soviets departed to the east. After a brief stop at Barcelona, Wasp began her homeward journey on 24 February and arrived at Quonset Point on 3 March.

After spending March and April in port, Wasp got underway on 27 April and conducted a nuclear technical proficiency inspection and prepared for the forthcoming Exotic Dancer exercise which commenced on 3 May. Having successfully completed the week-long exercise, Wasp was heading home on 8 May when an ABC television team embarked and filmed a short news report on carrier antisubmarine warfare operations.

On 15 May, the veteran conducted a dependents' day cruise, and one month later, participated in Exercise Rough Ride at Great Sound, Bermuda, which took her to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Wasp returned to Quonset Point on 2 July 1971, and spent the next two months in preparation and execution of Exercise Squeeze Play IX in the Bermuda operating area. In August, the ship conducted exercises with an East Coast naval reserve air group while proceeding to Mayport, Florida. She returned to her home port on 26 August and spent the next month there. On 23 September, Wasp got underway for Exercise Lantcortex 1-72, which terminated on 6 October. For the remainder of the month, the carrier joined in a crossdeck operation which took her to Bermuda, Mayport, and Norfolk. She arrived back at Quonset Point on 4 November.

Four days later, the carrier set her course for the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Co., where she was in drydock until 22 November. She then returned to Quonset Point and remained in her home port for the remainder of the year preparing for decommissioning. [1]

On 1 March 1972, it was announced that Wasp would be decommissioned and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register after more than 28 years of service. Decommissioning ceremonies were held on 1 July 1972. The ship was sold on 21 May 1973 to the Union Minerals and Alloys Corporation, of New York City, [1] and subsequently scrapped at the former site of the Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company shipyard, Kearny, New Jersey [ citation needed ] . Her anchor is on display at the Freedom Park. [7]


Records of the Bureau of the Census

Established: In the Department of Commerce and Labor by order of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor, July 1, 1903. Agency name legislatively confirmed by act of August 31, 1954 (68 Stat. 1025).

Predecessor Agencies:

Temporary census offices (1st-12th Decennial Censuses, 1790- 1900), submitting returns as follows:

1st Decennial Census (1790, to the President)
2d-6th Decennial Censuses (1800-40, to the Secretary of State)
7th-9th Decennial Censuses (1850-70, to the Secretary of the Interior)
10th-12th Decennial Censuses (1880-1900, through the
Superintendent of the Census to the Secretary of the Interior)

Census Office, Department of the Interior (1902-3)

Transfers: To Department of Commerce by Department of Commerce Act (37 Stat. 736), March 4, 1913 to Social and Economic Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce, by Secretary's Order, January 1, 1972 restored to independent status in the Department of Commerce by Organization Order 35-2A, August 4, 1975.

Functions: Conducts decennial censuses of population and housing and quinquennial censuses of agriculture, state and local governments, manufactures, mineral industries, distributive trades, construction industries, and transportation. Compiles statistics on foreign trade, imports, exports, and shipping. Publishes population estimates and projections data on population and housing characteristics and reports on manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade, services, construction, and state and local government finances and employment.

Acquired responsibility for compiling Statistical Abstract of the United States and foreign trade statistics from the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1937 and 1941, respectively. Responsibility for compiling vital statistics transferred to U.S. Public Health Service, Federal Security Agency, by Reorganization Plan No. II of 1946, effective July 16, 1946.

Finding Aids: Katherine H. Davidson and Charlotte M. Ashby, comps., Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Bureau of the Census, PI 161 (1964) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of census schedules and other publications of the Bureau of the Census and its components in RG 287, Publications ofthe U.S. Government. General Records of the Department of Commerce, RG 40. Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, RG 48.

29.2 ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS OF THE CENSUS OFFICE
1820-1905

History: As mandated by the Constitution (article I, section 2), an act of March 1, 1790 (1 Stat. 101) provided for the 1st Census and, with minor modifications, governed each census through 1850. The term "Census Office" refers to temporary staffs established to administer the decennial censuses, 1790-1900. Censuses were taken by U.S. district marshals, 1790-1870 and by enumerators under supervisors responsible through the Superintendent of the Census to the Secretary of the Interior, 1880-1900. Extant administrative records begin with those of the 4th Census (1820). Census schedules, 1790-1950, are described UNDER 29.8.

29.2.1 Records of the 4th through 9th Censuses (1820-70)

Textual Records: Records of the 4th Census, 1820-21. Accounts of compensation to marshals for the 5th Census, 1830-31, and 6th Census, 1840-41. Records of the 7th Census, including journal of payments to marshals, 1850-53 records of employees, 1850-55 letter book, 1851-52 and receipts and summaries of census returns, 1850. Records of the 8th Census, including payments to marshals and assistants, 1860-70 lists of employees, 1860-63 and accounting records, 1859-64. Records of the 9th Census, including records relating to personnel, 1870-72 monthly payrolls, 1870-73 accounting records, 1870-77 register of returns received, 1870-71 and population reports, 1870. Descriptions of enumeration subdivisions for the 7th, 8th, and 9th Censuses, 1850, 1860, 1870.

Microfilm Publications: T1224.

29.2.2 Records of the 10th Census (1880)

Textual Records: Copies of letters sent, 1877-81. Records relating to applicants, 1880-81 appointees, 1879-80 and personnel, 1879-85. Lists of special agents, experts, and field personnel, 1879-81. Payroll records, 1879-85. Enumerator pay accounts, 1880-81. Journal of expenditures, 1879-85. Account books, 1879-85. Copies of letters to enumerators, 1880. Index to letters sent to special agents, 1880. Record of Congressional correspondence concerning enumerators, 1880-81. Records of receipt of schedules, 1880-83. List of occupations, 1880. Record books concerning fisheries, 1869-79 Louisiana sugar planters, 1881-82 and meat production in Utah and cattle in Texas, 1878- 80. Descriptions of enumeration districts, 1880. Index to the 1880 population census for Maryland and the District of Columbia, 1880 (153 lin. ft.). 1880 census index cards for using the Soundex systems for the states of AL, FL, KY, and "A - C466" for MS, 1880 (725 lin. ft. in Atlanta).

Note: 1880 census index cards for the state of GA are on permanent loan to the Georgia Genealogical Society.

Microfilm Publications: T1224.

Subject Access Terms: Seaton, Charles W. Walker, Francis A.

29.2.3 Records of the 11th Census (1890)

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1889. Patronage lists, 1889-94. Lists of employees, 1889-94. Records relating to employees, 1889- 97, and special agents, 1889-93. Payroll records, 1889-1903. Payments to enumerators, 1890-91. Accounts of special agents, 1890-93. Lists of state institutions submitting schedules, 1890- 91. Statistics pertaining to congregations of Lutheran synods, 1890. List of special agents for farms, homes, and mortgages, 1890. Diary and statistics of special agent in Alaska, 1890. Lists of names and addresses of state prisons, orphanages, hospitals, asylums, and schools for the "deaf, dumb, and blind," 1890-91. Records concerning manufacturing and coal-mining schedules, 1890-91. Descriptions of enumeration subdivisions, 1890 (11 vols.).

Microfilm Publications: T1224.

Subject Access Terms: Porter, Robert P. Wright, Carroll D.

29.2.4 Records of the 12th Census (1900)

Textual Records: Appointment and personnel records, 1899-1902. Record of special agents, 1899-1902, and enumerators, 1900. Payrolls, 1899-1905. Scrapbooks, 1900. Schedules, forms, and instructions, 1900. Descriptions of enumeration districts, 1900 (20 vols.).

Microfilm Publications: T1210.

Subject Access Terms: Merriam, William R.

29.3 ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
1860-1990

History: A permanent Census Office was established in the Department of the Interior by an act of March 6, 1902 (32 Stat. 51), effective July 1, 1902. Transferred to the newly established Department of Commerce and Labor by act of February 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 826). Name changed to Bureau of the Census on July 1, 1903, by order of the Secretary of Commerce and Labor formally fixed by act of August 31, 1954 (68 Stat. 1025).

29.3.1 Records of the Office of the Director

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, minutes of meetings, legislative records, speeches, publications, statistical studies, and other records of directors and assistant directors, 1882- 1973. Speech files of associate director Shirley Kallek, 1973-83. Organization charts and memorandums, 1957-73.

Subject Access Terms: Austin, William Lane Brown, G. H. Eckler, A. Ross Falkner, Roland P. Grieves, Howard C. Hauser, Philip M. North, Simon Newton Dexter Reed, Virgil D. Steuart, William M. Time and Attendance, Special Committee on Willoughby, William F.

29.3.2 Records of the Census Advisory Committee

History: Established in 1918 to advise on problems pertaining to the 14th Census. Composed of members of the American Statistical Association (ASA) and American Economic Association. Became a permanent committee of ASA in December 1922, and a standing committee in 1937.

Textual Records: Minutes, resolutions, reports, and correspondence relating to Census Bureau organization, legislation, personnel, and publications, 1919-63.

29.3.3 Records of the Administrative Services Division and its
predecessors

History: By an act of March 6, 1902 (32 Stat. 51), chief clerk served as acting director in the director's absence. Office of the Chief Clerk abolished, June 17, 1941. Its functions and those of the Appointments Division assigned to the newly established Administrative Services Division.

Textual Records: Records of the chief clerk, 1912-50, relating to census machine equipment, wartime activities, and procedures for taking the 14th-16th Censuses (1920 through 1940). Records of the Administrative Service Division, including correspondence, memorandums, and reports, 1900-53 disbursing ledgers, 1902-23 expenses, 1900-41 and records of technician O. Louis Cleven relating to machine tabulation, 1917-30. Records of the Appointments Division, including employee records, 1902-4 list of special agents, 1902-7 and other personnel records, 1898- 1929.

29.3.4 Records of the Publications Division

Textual Records: World War II history project records, 1946. Press releases, 1945-69. Press clippings, 1937-66. Publications, 1954-58. Microfilm copy of 1792-1917 census publications, 1948-49 (32 rolls).

Microfilm Publications: T825.

Motion Pictures (1 reel): Know Your U.S.A., relating to the 16th Census (1940), and to punchcard and tabulating operations of the Census Bureau, 1940. SEE ALSO 29.10.

Sound Recordings (5 items): "Uncle Sam Calling--Story of the 1940 Census," 1940. SEE ALSO 29.11.

29.3.5 Records of the Field Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, minutes, reports, issuances, training manuals, and other records, 1944-62. Microfilm copies of correspondence with city and county engineers, 1903-40 (22 rolls) and concerning states, 1930-50 (7 rolls), and minor civil divisions, 1935-40 (27 rolls).

Sound Recordings (3 items): To accompany training filmstrips described below. SEE ALSO 29.11.

Filmstrips (20 items): Enumerator training for 1959 Census of Agriculture (F, 6 items). Enumerator training for 1950 and 1960 population censuses, and the 1954 Agriculture Census (FS, 14 items). SEE ALSO 29.13.

29.3.6 Records of the Geography Division

Textual Records: Subject file, 1889-1950. Correspondence, 1906- 50. Reference card files on metropolitan population, 1953 on the 1820 Census of Manufactures, New Jersey, n.d. and on population data from the 17th Census (1950), n.d. Descriptions of enumeration districts, 1910-50 (462 vols.), with microfilm copy of descriptions, 1940-50 (66 rolls). Publications relating to census mapping activities and the origin and use of the census tract, 1947-52, and listing U.S. minor civil division areas and giving their derivations, 1940-50. Training manuals for reading census maps and aerial photographs, and describing enumeration districts, 1940-50. Minor Civil Division code sheets for the population census of 1950, 1950.

Maps (198,129 items and 11 rolls of microfilm): Regional boundaries and field offices, 1953-57 (5 items). Manuscript enumeration district maps, 1880-1970 (101,065 items and 11 rolls of microfilm). Split enumeration districts, 1960 (3,500 items). Block statistical outline maps and accompanying printed data for selected cities, compiled for the Census of Housing, 1970 (4,000 items) and 1980 (12,800 items). Tract maps, 1980 (157 items). Census maps (printed versions of the Census TIGER (Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System) files for 1990), 1990 (70,000 items). Published decimal census maps, 1860-1971 (1,730 items). Enumeration districts in Indian reservations, ca. 1935 (213 items). Statistical Atlas of the United States, 1870, 1900, 1914, 1924, (1,200 items), showing such political, social, and economic data as population by race and nationality, vital statistics, wealth, employment, handicapped groups, agriculture, irrigation and drainage, Congressional districts, slaves (1860), and types of forest trees (1880). Manuscript state maps showing county boundaries, 1923-46 (134 items). Published base maps of the world, Western Hemisphere, the United States, individual states, and metropolitan areas, 1920-70 (268 items). Published maps of U.S. minor civil divisions, 1930-70 (195 items). Maps, produced in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, showing the location of industry and industrial employment in the United States, 1940-41 (126 items). Manuscript map and graph summaries of social and economic census data, 1930-50 (1,699 items), including population density, population by race, agriculture, and counties affected by drought in 1934. Manuscript statistical dot maps compiled for the 1950 Census of Agriculture (581 items), including a study of multiple-unit farms in the South, 1950. Special tabulation city maps, 1950 (10 items). Maps prepared for National Atlas of the United States, 1956 (41 items) the Census Atlas of Latin America project, 1953-56 (18 items) and the Census of the Americas project, 1940-45 (277 items). Published "GE-50" statistical maps of the United States, 1960-86 (110 items), showing distribution or percentage of: general population, ethnic population, older Americans, income, poverty areas, owned and rented housing, migration, high school education, retail sales, mineral industries, and value of farm products with some interfiled maps showing Congressional district boundaries. SEE ALSO 29.9.

Machine-Readable Records (423 data sets): Geographic Base File/Dual Independent Map Encoding (GBF/DIME), 1980: Standard Metropolitian Statistical Area File. (338 data sets). Special Program Information Tape, n.d. (52 data sets). Correction, Update, and Extension Tape, n.d. (33 data sets). SEE ALSO 29.12.

Photographs (60 images): Navajo Indian enumeration, 1930 (NR). SEE ALSO 29.13.

Microfilm Publications: T1224.

Finding Aids: James Berton Rhoads and Charlotte M. Ashby, comps., Preliminary Inventory of the Cartographic Records of the Bureau of the Census, PI 103 (1958).

Subject Access Terms: American Samoa Central America Cuba Dominican Republic Guam Haiti Hawaii Panama Canal Zone Puerto Rico South America Virgin Islands.

29.3.7 Records of the Data User Services Division

Machine-Readable Records (15 data sets): City-county data books, 1952, 1956, 1962, 1967, 1972, 1977, 1983 consolidated county data books, 1944-77 and consolidated city data books, 1947-77, all with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 29.12.

29.3.8 Records of the Financial and Adminstrative Systems Division

Textual Records: Management studies and reports, 1955-71. Management reports, 1966-80.

29.4 RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT DIRECTOR FOR
STATISTICAL STANDARDS
1850-1990

History: Originated in the position of fifth chief statistician appointed for 12th Census (1900) to strengthen confidence in census results within scientific and statistical communities. Division of Methods and Results established by fifth chief statistician, 1899. Consolidated with Division of Publications to become Division of Revision and Results, effective July 1, 1904. A separate Division of Statistical Research was established, August 11, 1933, and discontinued, April 1, 1943. Position of Statistical Assistant to the Director established April 4, 1933 changed to Assistant Director for Statistical Standards, April 4, 1949. Developed standards and procedures for sampling, gathering statistics, and publishing and evaluating census data.

29.4.1 General records

Textual Records: Annual reports, 1899-1942. Monthly reports from chief clerk to director and from director to Secretary of Commerce, 1912-56, 1961-66. Circular letters, 1928-55. Records of trips, papers, and meetings, 1934-49. Report of field trip to Hawaii, 1948. Correspondence with the Secretary of Commerce, 1935-43. Records of Attorney Advisor Robert H. Holley concerning legislation, 1936-52. Charts of census subjects, 1938-47. Miscellaneous correspondence, 1900-32. Blank samples of census schedules, 1850-1950. Foreign census methodological files, 1930- 59. Panel of Statistical Consultants' files, 1954-69. Local public meeting files, 1974-77. Foreign consultants' files, 1966-76. Reports concerning paperwork management and studies measuring clerical effectiveness in the 1970 census, 1955-74. Records of the Committee on Modernizing Survey Practices, 1982-84.

Subject Access Terms: Inter-American Congress on Municipalities Willcox, Walter F.

29.4.2 Records of the Chief Statistician

Textual Records: General records, including correspondence, conference reports, and studies, relating to government and private agencies, 1910-40. Records concerning intrabureau relations ("Memoranda and Notes"), 1905-68. Correspondence and other records of Joseph A. Hill, chief, Division of Statistical Research and its predecessors, 1910-40. Correspondence of special agent Laverne Beales, 1915-19. Correspondence of the Division of Statistical Research, 1935-43. Records relating to Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) projects, 1934-35, and to the Work Projects Administration (WPA), 1936-39. Records of chief statistician Calvert L. Dedrick, 1935-42, and acting chief statistician Morris H. Hansen, 1940-43. Schedules, forms, and instructions, 1900-40. Records relating to publicity, 1930-40.

Subject Access Terms: Central Housing Committee Central Statistical Board Eighth American Scientific Congress International Statistical Institute Rossiter, William Sidney.

29.4.3 Records relating to censuses

Textual Records: Records relating to the 1948 Census of Business, 1944-53. Records of the 16th Census (1940), including reports of farm units, 1940-41 records of the monograph program, 1940-41 cost analyses by state, 1940-41 weekly progress reports, 1940, and procedures used in the 15th Census (1930), 1940. Records of the 17th Census (1950), including general records of the Statistical Reports Division, 1943-60 geographic forms and correspondence, 1939-49 chronologies, 1946-52 and records maintained by Morris B. Ullman, chief, Statistical Reports Division, 1948-53. Records of the 18th Census (1960), including a microfilm copy of correspondence, reports, and other records assembled by the Data User Services Division, 1960 (27 rolls) 1960 methodological files, 1955-65 and bibliographical materials, n.d. Records of the 19th Census (1970), including press releases, forms, and manuals, 1967-70 and census planning records, 1952-75. Records of the 20th Census (1980), including microfiche copies of the 1980 census maps, 1976-80 (4,200 items) census population and housing summaries, 1980-83 (6,300 items) census manufactures and population data, 1943-84 (6,600 items) street tract address index, 1980 (250 items) and neighborhood statistics program reports, 1980 (450 items). Records of the 21st Census (1990), consisting of microfiche copies of index to housing units enumerated by the 1990 decennial census, 1990 (5,000 items).

Motion Pictures (14 reels): Training films for enumerators for 16th Census (1940), 1939-40 (4 reels). National Educational Television series concerning the 1960 census, illustrating the history and work of the Census Bureau, 1960 (10 reels). SEE ALSO 29.10.

29.4.4 Records relating to apportionment and vital statistics

Textual Records: Records relating to apportionment of Congressional districts, 1900-50. Correspondence relating to transfer of Division of Vital Statistics to Public Health Service, 1932-38. General records relating to vital statistics, 1936-46. Forms, instructions, and issuances, 1922-45.

29.5 RECORDS OF THE ASSISTANT DIRECTOR FOR DEMOGRAPHIC FIELDS
1870-1994

29.5.1 Records of the Agriculture Division

Textual Records: Scrapbooks, 1900-68. Minor Civil Division code sheets for the 1930, 1935, 1940 and 1945 Censuses of Agriculture, 1930-45. Planning files and specifications for the 1969 Census of Agriculture, 1965-74.

29.5.2 Records of the Population and Housing Division

Textual Records: Records of the Population Division, 1961-69, and of Edwin D. Goldfield, program coordinator, 1947-56. Scrapbooks and correspondence relating to censuses of housing, 1940 religious bodies, 1926 marriage and divorce, 1922-29 and population, 1920-40. Tabulations from 1930 census of enumeration districts, races and ethnic groups, Indians, unemployment, and occupations, n.d. Tabulations of domestic service employees, 1974-77. Planning records, 1950 census of population, 1950 and 1970 census of population, 1961-69.

Machine-Readable Records (2,455 data sets): Public use samples from Decennial Censuses of Population and Housing, 1940, 1950 (40 data sets) and 1960 (32 data sets). From the Decennial Census of Population and Housing, 1970: First Count, Summary Files A and B (102 data sets) 4th Count, Summary Files B and C (9 data sets) 5th Count, Summary Files A, B, and C (62 data sets) Puerto Rico public use sample (3 data sets) master enumeration district list (9 data sets) neighborhood characteristics 5% and 15% public use samples (22 data sets) and state 5% and 15% public use samples (46 data sets). Special Program Information Tape, n.d. (52 data sets). Correction, Update, and Extension Tape, n.d. (33 data sets). From the Decennial Census of Population and Housing, 1980: Summary Tape Files 1A (57 data sets), 1D [98th Congress District Data] (51 data sets), 2C (3 data sets), 3A (57 data sets), 3B [Zip Code Data] (4 data sets), 3D [98th Congress District Data] (50 data sets), and 3F [School District Data] (50 data sets) and Public Law 94-171 (51 data sets). From the Decennial Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape Files 1A (94 data sets), 1B (487 data sets), 1C (3 data sets), 1D (51 data sets), 2A (1 data set), 2B (123 data sets), 2C (48 data sets), 3A (266 data sets), 3B (50 data sets), 3C (8 data sets), 3D (51 data sets), and 4C (286 data sets) Puerto Rico Summary Tape Files 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and 3 (13 data sets) Virgin Islands Summary Tape Files 1A, 1B, and 2 (5 data sets) Public Law 94-171 (62 data sets) place of work (52 data sets) Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) summary data file (52 data sets) and Subject Summary Tape File 19 [the Older Population of the United States] (5 data sets). Annual Housing Survey (AHS), 1973-83 (150 data sets). All data sets with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 29.12.

Subject Access Terms: Taeuber, Conrad.

29.5.3 Records of the Demographic Survey Division

Textual Records: Planning and development records for current population surveys, 1890-1973. Records relating to surveys of recreation, 1960-61 family finances, 1963-64 consumption 1962- 63 senior citizens, 1962-67 labor, 1965-66 pilot flight time study, 1966-67 and health in California, 1952-61, and Hawaii, 1958-59. Immigration studies, 1920-60. Occupation and industry classifications, 1870-1950. Surveys of population groups, fishing and hunting, housing construction, and economic opportunity, 1946-71.

Machine-Readable Records (164 data sets): Current Population Survey (CPS), 1973, 1975-1993 (163 data sets). English Language Proficiency Study, 1982, (1 data set), with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 29.12.

29.5.4 Records of the Division of Territorial, Insular, and
Foreign Statistics

Textual Records: General subject file, 1935-42. Records relating to the 15th (1930), 16th (1940), and 17th (1950) Territorial Censuses, 1929-50. Scrapbooks, 1920-52. Records concerning censuses of Puerto Rico, 1910, 1920, 1935 Alaska, 1910 and the Philippines, 1910, 1938. Records relating to the liquidation of the division, 1941-43.

Subject Access Terms: Strahorn, Margaret A. Williams, Joel.

29.5.5 Records relating to the 1937 Census of Unemployment

Textual Records: General records, 1937-38. Correspondence, 1937- 39. Records of field supervisors, 1937-38. Scrapbooks and press clippings, 1937-38. Unemployment surveys, 1938-42. WPA studies, 1938-46. Records of the Unemployment Project, 1937-38.

Motion Pictures (1 reel): Counting the Jobless, explaining the 1937 Census of Unemployment, 1937. SEE ALSO 29.10.

Subject Access Terms: Biggers, John D. McEwen, G. Hiram Cowling, Herford T. Rhodes, Thomas B.

29.6 RECORDS OF THE ASSISTANT DIRECTOR FOR ECONOMIC FIELDS
1890-1996

29.6.1 Records of the Business Division

Textual Records: Records relating to the 1929 Census of Distribution, 1929-33 and to the 1939, 1948, and 1954 Censuses of Business, 1933-54.

29.6.2 Records of the Division of Foreign Trade Statistics

History: Established by Secretary of Commerce Order 111, May 1, 1941, assuming functions relating to collection and compilation of foreign trade statistics previously conducted by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce (SEE RG 151).

Textual Records: Tabulations and compilations, 1914-38. Correspondence and reports, 1933-66. Export Branch correspondence, 1946-51. Office files of Director J. Edward Ely, 1934-52. Schedules and schedule changes, 1906-55. Records of the Classification and Codes Section, 1937-50. Education files, 1946.

Machine-Readable Records (134 data sets): Annual import and export data bank, 1964-93 (124 data sets), with supporting documentation. Imports and exports concordance files, 1983-87 (10 data sets), with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 29.12.

29.6.3 Records of the Governments Division

Textual Records: Office files of legal officer Robert H. Holley, 1942-44. Records relating to state taxation and revenue laws, 1936-43. Records relating to the Advisory Committee on State and Local Government Statistics, 1948-63. Records relating to election surveys, 1939-47. Survey files relating to state and local economic policy and planning, 1930-51. Records of the Census Advisory Committee on state and local government statistics, 1948-75. Open dump inventory reports and amendments, 1980-83.

Machine-Readable Records (147 data sets): Employment and Finance Data Files A, B, and C, from the Census of Governments, 1972 (29 data sets). Work stoppages and bargaining units, finance files, and employment files, from the Census of Governments, 1977 (19 data sets). Finance data, 1967, 1970-79 (11 data sets), and employment statistics, 1979 (1 data set), from annual surveys of governments. Survey of income and program participation (SIPP), 1987-88 (32 data sets). Federal Assistance Awards Data System (FAADS), January 1982-June 1996 (55 data sets), with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 29.12.

29.6.4 Records of the Industry Division

Textual Record: Subject files of Industry Division Chief Maxwell H. Conklin, 1944-60. General correspondence, 1945-53. Correspondence and other records relating to censuses of manufactures, 1948-53 a census of industry for defense purposes, 1950-56 and economic censuses for 1958, 1963, and 1967. Schedules, forms, and instructions for censuses of manufacturers, 1890-1947 and of mineral industries, 1939. Scrapbooks relating to manufactures, 1909-41 mines and quarries, 1921-31 electrical industry, 1912- 37 lumber and timber industry, 1908-11, 1943-44 cotton industry, 1924-46 confectionery and chocolate industry, 1928-45 and others, 1927-33. Scrapbooks containing statistics on fats and oils, 1923-33 hides, skins, and leather, 1925-30 cottonseed and cottonseed products, 1916-41 and wheat and flour milling, 1923- 25. Records of the Technical Committee on Standard Industrial Classification, 1951-52 and the Committee on Statistical Areas, 1947-50. Interindustrial economic studies, 1947-55. Historical file on 1947 Census of Manufactures, 1945-48. Records relating to the 1954 Census of Manufactures and Mineral Industries. Records relating to the 1966 survey of manufacturers, 1966-76.

29.6.5 Records of the Economic Surveys Division

Textual Records: Records relating to the 1967 economic censuses, 1965-70. Procedures memorandums for the 1977 economic census, 1976-82.

Machine-Readable Records (271 data sets): Cross tabulation files from Censuses of Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade, Selected Services, Mineral Industries, and Manufactures, 1972 and from Annual Survey of Manufactures, 1976 (39 data sets), with supporting documentation. County business patterns, 1974-85, 1987-88 (227 data sets), with supporting documentation. Annual survey of construction: survey of housing starts, sales, and completion, 1990-94 (5 data sets). SEE ALSO 29.12.

29.6.6 Records of the Manufacturing and Construction Division

Textual Records: Microfilm copy of schedules of the 1947 Census of Manufactures and numbered memorandums concerning the 1947 Census of Manufactures, 1947 (440 rolls). Planning and management files relating to the industrial reports survey, 1960-77. Records relating to the 1972 census of manufactures and minerals industries, 1971-75. Procedures memorandums for the annual survey of manufactures, 1960-74. Survey project files for the annual survey of manufactures, 1949-76. Procedures manual for the Current Industrial Survey, 1965-68.

29.7 RECORDS OF THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC INFORMATION
1890-1980

Motion Pictures (24 reels): Theatrical trailer on 1950 population census, 1950 (1 reel). Test-mail census, n.d. (1 reel). Television public information films and spots on 1959 Census of Agriculture and 1960 population census (7 reels), and on 1980 population census (15 reels), 1959-80. SEE ALSO 29.10.

Sound Recordings (5 items): Public information sound recordings, 1959-60. SEE ALSO 29.11.

Photographs (122 images): 16th Census, 1940 (C). SEE ALSO 29.13.

Photographs and Lantern Slides (99 images): Tabulating machines used by the Census Bureau, 1890-1950 (CM). SEE ALSO 29.13.

29.8 CENSUS SCHEDULES AND SUPPLEMENTARY RECORDS
1790-1993

29.8.1 Decennial population schedules

Textual Records: Population schedules, 1st-9th Censuses, 1790- 1870 (3,100 vols.). Microfilm copy of population schedules, 1st- 17th Censuses, 1790-1950 (37,770 rolls). Manuscript slave schedules, 7th and 8th Censuses, 1850, 1860. Photostatic copies of population schedules, 1800-30 (1,150 vols.). Schedules of a special census on Indians, 1880. Fragmentary schedules, 11th Census, 1890. Territorial population schedules for Minnesota, 1857-58 Arizona, n.d. and Seminole County, OK, 1907.

Specific Restrictions: As specified in an exchange of letters between the Director of the Census and the Archivist of the United States, August 26 and October 10, 1952, and codified in 44 U.S.C. 2108(b), population census schedules are closed for 72 years from the date of the census.

Microfilm Publications: For listings of available microfilm publications of population schedules, please consult the National Archives microfilm publications catalog for the desired census. The censuses of the period 1790-1890 are represented in a single publication, while there is a separate catalog for each of the censuses of 1900, 1910, and 1920.

Finding Aids: W. Neil Franklin, comp., Federal Population and Mortality Census Schedules, 1790-1890, in the National Archives and the States, SL 24 (1971, revised 1986, and reissued on microfiche only). Population Schedules, 1800-1870: Volume Index to Counties and Major Cities, SL 8 (1951). Debra L. Newman, comp., List of Free Black Heads of Families in the First Census of the United States, 1790, SL 34 (1973).

29.8.2 Nonpopulation schedules

Textual Records (844 rolls of microfilm): Schedules, 1850-80, consisting of agriculture schedules for MN, NV, PA, and WY (63 rolls) industry schedules for NJ (2 rolls) manufactures schedules for PA (9 rolls) mortality schedules for AZ, CO, DC, GA, KS, KY, LA, MI, NJ, NC, SC, TN, UT, and VT (44 rolls) nonpopulation schedules for DC, FL, GA, IL, IA, KS, KY, LA, MD (Baltimore and Baltimore County only), MI, MT, NE, NC, OH, SC, TN, TX, VT, VA, and WA (703 rolls) and social statistics schedules for PA (23 rolls).

29.8.3 Miscellaneous nonpopulation schedules and supplementary
records

Textual Records: Census of Manufactures, 1820, 1932, and 1934. Microfilm copy of Census of Manufactures, 1929, 1935 (834 rolls). Agriculture schedules for the Virgin Islands, 1917 AK, GU, HI, and PR, 1920 and AK, GU, HI, PR, Samoa, and VI, 1930. General farm schedules, 1920, for McLean County, IL Jackson County, MI Carbon County, MT Santa Fe County, NM and Wilson County, TN. Schedules for tobacco, 1910 fruits and nuts, 1930 horticultural establishments, 1930 drainage and irrigation, 1930 business, 1929, 1935 and religious organizations, 1926-28. Schedules of a special census, 1885. Schedules of mines, agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing, 1840. Special municipal population enumerations for Hickory, NC, 1932 Monticello, North Vernon, Petersburg, and Rensselaer, IN, and Johnsonburg, PA, 1933 Alexander City and Clanton, AL, 1935 Crestwood, Rock Falls, and Sterling, IL, 1936 and Lincolnwood, Markham, and Riverside, IL, and Poplar Bluff, MO, 1938. Spanish-language population, social, and agriculture schedules of a special census of Puerto Rico, 1935-36. Typewritten copy of a 1789 tax list, Lincoln County, VA (now KY), n.d. Statistics derived from a New York state census, 1845. Abstracts of decennial population returns, 1791-1841. Digest of manufactures, 1823. Planning and management files relating to the 1980 decennial census of the U.S. territories, 1967-87. Records relating to the training and education pertaining to the 1990 decennial census, 1990. Statistical publications relating to the 1990 decennial census of the U.S. territories, 1992-93.

Specific Restrictions: Restrictions described UNDER 29.8.1 are applicable to these records.

29.9 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

29.10 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 29.3.4, 29.4.3, 29.5.5, and 29.7.

29.11 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 29.3.4, 29.3.5, and 29.7.

29.12 MACHINE-READABLE RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 29.3.6, 29.3.7, 29.5.2, 29.5.3, 29.6.2, 29.6.3, and 29.6.5.

29.13 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)

SEE Photographs UNDER 29.3.6 and 29.7. SEE Photographs and Lantern Slides UNDER 29.7. SEE Filmstrips UNDER 29.3.5.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Second World War Timeline

The Second World War was one of the most significant events in Canadian history. Canada played a vital role in the Battle of the Atlantic, and contributed forces to the campaigns of western Europe beyond what might be expected of a small nation of then only 11 million people. Between 1939 and 1945 more than one million Canadian men and women served full-time in the armed services.

Second World War Timeline

World War II began when Adolf Hitler sent the German army into Poland.

Second World War Timeline

Wartime Prices and Trade Board

The Wartime Prices and Trade Board was established to control inflation and to ensure that social unrest did not interfere with the upcoming war effort.

Second World War Timeline

Canada Declares War on Germany

Canada declared war on Germany, 7 days after Britain and France. The first Canadian troops left for England in December. Although "obliged to go to war at Britain's side," King's delay of a week was a symbolic gesture of independence.

Second World War Timeline

First Troops Sail for Britain

The first Canadian troop convoy sailed for Britain escorted out of Halifax by HMC ships Ottawa, Restigouche, Fraser and St. Laurent.

Second World War Timeline

Air Training Plan Established

The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was established. Operating from 1940–45 the BCATP trained some 131,000 airmen — one-half the total Commonwealth aircrew — a decisive Canadian contribution to victory in the Second World War.

Second World War Timeline

Vancouver Shipyards Gear up for War

Vancouver shipyards began to build corvettes and minesweepers for action in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Second World War Timeline

Québec women were the last in Canada to earn the rights to vote and run for office in provincial elections.

Second World War Timeline

Communists Declared Illegal

Nazi, Fascist and Communist groups were declared illegal in Canada, and their leaders were jailed.

Second World War Timeline

National Resources Mobilization

The National Resources Mobilization Act responded to the public clamour for a more effective Canadian war effort that arose in the wake of the stunning German victories in Belgium and France.

Second World War Timeline

Parliament passed the National Resources Mobilization Act, providing for the conscription of able-bodied men for home defence. It was amended in 1942 by Bill 80, giving the government power to conscript for overseas service.

Second World War Timeline

Houde Arrested for Sedition

Camillien Houde, the mayor of Montréal, was arrested by the RCMP for sedition in having advised Québec men not to take part in the compulsory National Registration.

Second World War Timeline

PM Mackenzie King and President Roosevelt held a conference on the defence of North America at Ogdensburg, NY. The Odgensburg Agreement was signed, and the Permanent Joint Board of Defence was created on August 18.

Second World War Timeline

Squadron Leader E.A. McNab, of the Canadian fighter squadron, first met the enemy during the Battle of Britain. By October the squadron had downed 30 enemy aircraft.

Second World War Timeline

Oberleutant Franz von Warrna escaped from a train near Smiths Falls, Ont., and returned to Europe. He was the only German prisoner of war to make it back across the Atlantic from Canada.

Second World War Timeline

Mackenzie King and F.D. Roosevelt signed the Hyde Park Declaration, uniting the economies of the two countries for war.

Second World War Timeline

Women Admitted to the Québec Bar

Québec law was changed to admit women to the Bar. They would have to wait until 1956 to become notaries.

Second World War Timeline

The census reported the population of Canada as 11 506 655.

Second World War Timeline

The federal government passed legislation that allowed women to enlist in the army.

Second World War Timeline

At Placentia Bay, Nfld, British prime minister Winston Churchill and American president F.D. Roosevelt signed the Atlantic Charter.

Second World War Timeline

Vancouver Asahi Play Last Game

The Vancouver Asahi played their last baseball game as the Japanese community was banished to exile on farms and internment camps.

Second World War Timeline

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December, 38 Japanese-Canadians were arrested as subversives. The federal government used the War Measures Act 12 weeks after the attack to order the removal of all Japanese Canadians residing within 160 kilometers of the Pacific coast. About 20,000 Japanese Canadians in BC, 75 per cent of whom were Canadian citizens, were fingerprinted, issued identification cards and removed from their homes. More than 8,000 were moved to a temporary detention camp (where women and children were held in a livestock building) at the Pacific National Exhibition Grounds in Vancouver.

Second World War Timeline

Canada Declares War on Romania

Canada declared war on Romania, Hungary, Finland and Japan.

Second World War Timeline

Japanese Attack Hong Kong

The Japanese attacked the mainland (Kowloon) side of Hong Kong, and Hong Kong itself on December 18. Hong Kong surrendered on December 25. Numerous Canadians were killed or died in Japanese prison camps.

Second World War Timeline

Canada Declares War on Japan

Canada joined Great Britain and the US in declaring war on Japan after the Japanese attacked the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor on Dec 7.

Second World War Timeline

Osborn Earns Victoria Cross

Gallantry shown by Company Sergeant-Major J.R. Osborn, Royal Winnipeg Grenadiers, in action against the Japanese at Hong Kong on this date led to the posthumous award of the Victoria Cross.

Second World War Timeline

The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

Second World War Timeline

Germany's first strategic advance by submarines on North American shores began as Operation Drumbeat (Paukenschlag).

Second World War Timeline

Order-in-Council Authorizes Internment of Japanese Canadians

A federal Order-in-Council declared a zone extending 100 miles inland from British Columbia ’s Pacific coast as a “protected area” and authorized the removal of all male Japanese nationals between the ages of 18 and 45 to interior internment camps. Two months later, the removals would be expanded to include all Japanese Canadians . The internment of Japanese Canadians during the Second World War is a deep scar on our historical memory.

Second World War Timeline

Japanese Canadians Interned

Invoking the War Measures Act, the Department of Justice issued a notice that called for the internment of citizens of Japanese ancestry. Some 20,881 men, women and children, 75 per cent of whom were Canadian citizens, were removed from their homes and moved to temporary detention camps. They remained in detention for the remainder of the Second World War.

Second World War Timeline

A Japanese submarine fired a few shells at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island, with no damage.

Second World War Timeline

The Veterans' Land Act made provision for returning veterans to obtain loans in order to buy land.

Second World War Timeline

Guadalcanal, in the southern Solomon Islands, was assaulted by the US Marines in one of the most bitterly fought campaigns of World War II.

Second World War Timeline

Canadian and British troops raided the French port of Dieppe to test German defences. The raid lasted only 9 hours, but of the nearly 5000 Canadian soldiers involved, more than 900 were killed and 1874 taken prisoner.

Second World War Timeline

Merritt Awarded Victoria Cross

Vancouver's Lieutenant-Colonel Cecil Merritt became the first Canadian in WWII to win the Victoria Cross, for his bravery during the Dieppe Raid. Taken prisoner, he spent the rest of the war in POW camps.

Second World War Timeline

Wartime Information Board

The Wartime Information Board was established to influence the public's interpretation of the war.

Second World War Timeline

Sinking of the SS Caribou

A German U-boat sank the Sydney to Channel-Port Aux Basques ferry, SS Caribou, with the loss of 137 lives - the worst inshore disaster of the Battle of the Atlantic in Canada.

Second World War Timeline

The first German agent landed from a U-boat off New Carlisle, Québec and was promptly arrested by the police.

Second World War Timeline

Frederick Peters Earns Victoria Cross

Actions by Captain Frederick Peters of the Royal Navy at Oran, North Africa earned him the Victoria Cross.

Second World War Timeline

The airmen of the Canadian bomber squadrons became part of 6 Group, the first non-British formation to become part of the RAF Bomber Command. They flew their first operation on January 3/4 laying mines off the Frisian Islands.

Second World War Timeline

HMCS Ville de Quebec Sinks U-Boat

HMCS Ville de Quebec sank the German submarine U-224 in the western Mediterranean Sea.

Second World War Timeline

Germans Surrender at Stalingrad

The German army surrendered to the Soviet army at Stalingrad, generally considered one of the turning points of WWII.

Second World War Timeline

The Canadian 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Tank Brigade took part in the invasion of Sicily.

Second World War Timeline

Churchill and Roosevelt held the 6th Anglo-American War Conference, hosted by Mackenzie King (first Québec Conference) in Québec City.

Second World War Timeline

The Canada Medal was approved by King George VI and the Canadian Cabinet. It was the first distinctly Canadian decoration, although it was never awarded.

Second World War Timeline

Triquet Awarded Victoria Cross

Major Paul Triquet, Royal 22nd Regiment, was awarded the Victoria Cross for gallantry in Italy.

Second World War Timeline

Infantry from the Loyal Edmonton Regiment and the Seaforth Highlanders of Canada attacked Ortona, Italy. The German forces withdrew on the night of December 27.

Second World War Timeline

HMCS Camrose and HMS Bayntun sank the German submarine U-757 in the North Atlantic.

Second World War Timeline

Crerar Appointed Commander

Henry Duncan Graham Crerar was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the 1st Canadian Army.

Second World War Timeline

The 1st Canadian Army liberated Dieppe, scene of the previous disaster.

Second World War Timeline

2nd Québec War Conference

The 2nd Québec Conference of Allied leaders Winston Churchill and F.D. Roosevelt was held at the Château Frontenac in Québec City, hosted by Mackenzie King.

Second World War Timeline

Battle of the Scheldt Estuary

The 2nd Canadian Division crossed the Antwerp Canal to begin the freeing of the Scheldt estuary and the port of Antwerp.

Second World War Timeline

After a fierce defence by the Germans under Gen Hermann Balck, the Allies captured Aachen, the first German city captured by the Allies in World War II.

Second World War Timeline

Troops Mutiny at Terrace, BC

Officers regained control of their troops at the Terrace, BC, army base after 5 days of mutiny among soldiers, the most serious breach of discipline in the Canadian military during WWII.

Second World War Timeline

HMCS Clayoquot was torpedoed by U-boat 806 and sinks in the Halifax approaches.

Second World War Timeline

HMCS St. Thomas Sinks U-boat

HMCS St. Thomas sank the German submarine U-877 in the North Atlantic.

Second World War Timeline

Canadian Casualties Announced

Canadian casualties from the start of the Second World War to November 30, 1944, were reported at 78 985, including 28 040 killed.

Second World War Timeline

First Conscripts Overseas

The first of Canada's home defence forces conscripted for overseas duty arrived in Britain. The government confirmed that over 6000 "zombies" absent without leave in Canada would be classed as deserters.

Second World War Timeline

Operation Veritable, a joint offensive by the 1st Canadian Army and British troops, was launched in the Rhineland area of Holland.

Second World War Timeline

CBC Shortwave Radio Service

The CBC began its international shortwave radio service. The first broadcasts were directed mainly to Canadian forces overseas.

Second World War Timeline

Cosens Earns Victoria Cross

Sergeant Aubrey Cosens of the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada earned the Victoria Cross for his heroism in fighting with the 1st Canadian Army in the Battle for the Rhineland. He died in action.

Second World War Timeline

Tilston Wins Victoria Cross

Major Frederick Tilston of the Canadian Army won a Victoria Cross for leading an attack on the Hochwald Forest defence line in the Battle for the Rhineland.

Second World War Timeline

Canada Attends UN Conference

Canada was invited to attend the United Nations Conference in San Francisco.

Second World War Timeline

Topham Wins Victoria Cross

Corporal Frederick George Topham, a medical orderly with the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, won the Victoria Cross for rescuing wounded men despite his own injuries in fighting east of the Rhine River in Germany.

Second World War Timeline

A ceremony in Ottawa marked the closing of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. One of Canada's major contributions to the Second World War, the plan trained 130 000 pilots.

Second World War Timeline

Liberation of Arnhem, Holland

Troops of the 1st Canadian Army liberated Arnhem in Holland after 2 days of fighting.

Second World War Timeline

Sinking of HMCS Esquimalt

German U-boat U-190 sank HMCS Esquimalt near the Halifax lightship. U-190 surrendered to Canada on 11 May 1945 and was sunk ceremonially on 21 October 1947 where she had destroyed the Esquimalt.

Second World War Timeline

1st Canadian Corps pushed north to the Ijsselmeer, isolating German forces in the western Netherlands.

Second World War Timeline

End of World War II in Europe

Hostilities ceased in Europe. The unconditional surrender of Germany was signed at Rheims on May 7, and it was ratified at Berlin on May 8.

Second World War Timeline

The Germans surrendered unconditionally to the western Allies, and to the Soviets the next day.

Second World War Timeline

Victory in Europe Day (VE-Day) riots broke out in Halifax. About 10 000 servicemen looted and vandalized the city's downtown.

Second World War Timeline

Canada Joins United Nations

Canada joined the United Nations at its founding.

Second World War Timeline

Bedford Magazine Explosion

An ammunition barge blew up at the naval magazine jetty on Bedford Basin, Halifax harbour. A chain reaction of fire, explosion and concussion rocked Halifax for a day.

Second World War Timeline

Bomb Dropped on Hiroshima

An atomic weapon was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, leaving 130 000 people dead or missing.

Second World War Timeline

The second atomic bomb of World War II was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki.

Second World War Timeline

Last Canadian Recepient of Victoria Cross Dies

Lieutenant Robert Hampton Gray of Trail, BC, died attacking a Japanese warship in the Pacific. He was the last Canadian (and the only fighter pilot in WWII) to receive the Victoria Cross.

Second World War Timeline

Japanese Formally Surrender

The formal surrender of the Japanese took place on the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, bringing the Second World War to a close. Altogether 1,086,771 Canadians, including 49,252 women, served in the armed forces. Total fatalities were 41,992.

Second World War Timeline

Nazi general Kurt Meyer personally gave orders for Canadian prisoners of war to be shot.

Second World War Timeline

A Canadian military court in Aurich, Germany, found Major-General Kurt Meyer guilty of war crimes: he was the only Nazi prisoner imprisoned in Canada after the war.


18 December 1942 - History

(3) Some of the abbreviations are not known and cannot be deciphered without further research.

EASTERN FLEET WAR DIARY

Tuesday, 1st December

HAWKINS

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

RESOURCE

Arrived Durban from Kilindini

FREESIA and CARTHAGE

Arrived Kilindini from Aden having been diverted to assist in the search for survivors of SS TILAWA

NIEUW AMSTERDAM

Arrived Diego Suarez from Aden and Middle East

VULCANIA and SATURNIA

Italian repatriation ships. Left Berbera for Port Elizabeth

Wednesday, 2nd December

SIGRFA

Escorting SS DUMRA left Diego Suarez for Kilindini

GAMTOOS

Left Kilindini for Aden en route to Mediterranean

HAWKINS

Left Diego Suarez for Durban

NAPIER

Left Kilindini for Durban. Instructed to overtake and escort R.F.A. ARNDALE who sailed from Kilindini for Durban on 29th November. If not met, NAPIER to proceed direct to Durban

RANCHI and PUNJAB

Left Aden escorting convoy A B 4

Thursday, 3rd December

MAURITIUS and ASTER

Left Bombay escorting B A 34. (MAURITIUS to 55 E thence to Diego Suarez. ASTER to 67E thence Bombay.)

DEVONSHIRE

Escorting H.T. MAURETANIA arrived Fremantle.

FALMOUTH and VAN DER ZAAN

Escorting convoy P B 14 arrived Bombay

DURBAN

Left Durban for Kilindini

FFS LEOPARD

Arrived Mauritius from Reunion

'SSSS'

M.F.A. oiler BELITA torpedoed and sunk in 10N, 55E

Friday, 4th December

DAUNTLESS

Arrived Aden having handed over escort of H.T. SONTAY to KANARIS

FROBISHER

Arrived Durban from Kilindini

SOEMBA and GERALDTON

Left Bandar Abbas escorting convoy P B 15

POOLE

Left Bandar Abbas escorting convoy P A 13.

WEST POINT

Left Bombay for Fremantle

SUTLEJ and JUMNA

Arrived Addu Atoll from Bombay

LISMORE and MADRAS

Left Bombay escorting convoy B P 61

BOMBAY

Arrived Aden escorting convoy P A 12

Saturday, 5th December

SONAVATI

Left Colombo for Cocos Islands carrying reliefs and supplies for the garrison

ETHIOPIAN

Arrived Seychelles

BIRMINGHAM

Arrived Kilindini from Bombay

KANARIS

Escorting H.T. SONTAY arrived Aden

DAUNTLESS

Left Aden for Kilindini

Sunday, 6th December

WORCESTERSHIRE

Escorting convoy C M 35 B arrived Bombay

FFS LEOPARD

Left Mauritius for Reunion

SIGRFA

Escorting SS DUMRA arrived Kilindini from Diego Suarez

JANUS and GLENROY

Arrived Kilindini from Aden

HAWKINS

Arrived Durban from Diego Suarez

Dutch Sub O 24

Left Colombo for patrol off Penang

SUTLEJ and JUMNA

Left Addu Atoll to R/V with GAMBIA escorting convoy O W 1.

FROBISHER

Left Durban escorting W S 24 B (two ships)

MAURITIUS

Escorting B A 34 ordered to proceed to Seychelles on handing over to Aden escort. Thence to relieve FROBISHER with convoy W S 24 B.

FROBISHER

on being relieved by MAURITIUS to proceed to refuel at Seychelles thence to Aden

RANPURA

Left Aden escorting convoy A K 5 (two ships) to Kilindini

ENGADINE

Left Durban for Fremantle

Monday, 7nd December

GAMBIA

Arrived Addu Atoll having handed over escort of O W 1 to SUTLEJ and JUMNA for onward passage to Persian Gulf

JANUS and GLENROY

Left Kilindini for Durban via Diego Suarez for fuel.

SLUNA

Left Diego Suarez for Tamatave with two political prisoners.

CESSNOCK and TOOWOOMBA

Escorting oiler GOLDMOUTH arrived Diego Garcia from Fremantle.

FALMOUTH

Left Bombay escorting convoy B P 62.

Tuesday, 8th December

CESSNOCK

Left Diego Garcia for Seychelles and Kilindini

KANIMBLA

Arrived Colombo

NAPIER

Arrived Durban from Kilindini

BARFOUNT

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

DURBAN

G rounded on entering Kilindini Harbour at 1700C. Refloated at 0920C/9th

GAMBIA

Left Addu Atoll for Colombo

Wednesday, 9th December

RANCHI and PUNJAB

Escorting convoy A B 4 arrived Bombay

GERALDTON and SOEMBA

Escorting convoy P B 15 arrived Bombay

Thursday, 10th December

GLENROY and JANUS

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

GAMBIA

Arrived Colombo from Addu Atoll

DAUNTLESS

Arrived Kilindini from Aden

POOLE

Arrived Aden escorting P A 13.

Friday, 11th December

MAURITIUS

Arrived Seychelles from Bombay

CARTHAGE

Left Kilindini escorting convoy M J 1 to Bombay

DAUNTLESS

Left Kilindini for Durban and Simonstown for docking

SLUNA

Left Tamatave for Diego Suarez

GAMBIA

Left Colombo for Kilindini

KANIMBLA

Left Colombo escorting convoy S U 5 to Fremantle.

Saturday, 12th December

CESSNOCK

Arrived Seychelles and left the same day for Kilindini

RANPURA

Arrived Kilindini from escorting convoy A K 5 from Aden

WORCESTERSHIRE and GERALDTON

Escorting convoy B A 35 left Bombay

'SSSS'

SS EMPIRE GULL torpedoed and sunk in 26 degrees South 35 degrees East

Sunday, 13th December

FROBISHER

Arrived Seychelles A.M. and left P.M. for Aden

CAPETOWN, CHITRAL, ROTHERHAM, NEPAL and NORMAN

Left Durban escorting combined convoys W S 24 A and C M 36.

FRITILLIARY

Left Seychelles for Kilindini

BOMBAY

Left Aden for Bombay

BLACKMORE

Left Kilindini for Diego Suarez for quick docking

SLUNA

Arrived Diego Suarez from Tamatave

Monday, 14th December

TOOWOOMBA

Arrived Diego Suarez from Fremantle

GAWLER

Escorting U.S.N. tanker TRINITY left Exmouth Gulf for Diego Garcia

GERALDTON

Arrived Bombay from Persian Gulf

TOOWOOMBA

Left Diego Suarez for Tamatave

Tuesday, 15th December

GERALDTON and PUNJAB

Left Bombay escorting convoy P B 63

BRITTANY

Left Kilindini for Diego Suarez

FFS LEOPARD

Arrived Mauritius from Reunion

BLACKMORE

Arrived Diego Suarez

BURNIE

Left Kilindini for Zanzibar and Diego Suarez escorting SS TAKLIWA

Wednesday, 16th December

LISMORE and MADRAS

Arrived Bombay escorting convoy P B 16

FALMOUTH

Left Khasab Bay escorting convoy P A 15

SUTLEJ and WILLEM VAN DER ZAAN

Left Khasab Bay escorting convoy P B 17

CESSNOCK

Arrived Kilindini from Fremantle

FROBISHER

Arrived Aden from Seychelles

TOOWOOMBA

Arrived Tamatave from Diego Suarez

DAUNTLESS

Arrived Durban from Kilindini

FARA

Arrived Seychelles from Kilindini

Thursday, 17th December

KIRRIEMOOR

Left Kilindini for Diego Suarez

GAMBIA

Arrived Kilindini from Colombo

FRITILLARY

Arrived Kilindini from Seychelles

MAURITIUS

Escorting convoy W S 24 B arrived Bombay

GLENROY and JANUS

Arrived Durban from Diego Suarez

SONAVATI

Arrived Addu Atoll on return from Cocos Islands.

FROBISHER

Left Aden escorting convoy M C 2

BARFOAM

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

Friday, 18th December

BRITTANY

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

Saturday, 19th December

CERES

Left Kilindini to R/V with combined convoys W S 24 A and C M 36 and to relieve CAPETOWN thence to Aden

PLADDA

Left Mauritius for Diego Suarez after refitting

BLACKMORE

Left Diego Suarez for Kilindini

BURNIE

Escorting SS TAKLIWA arrived Diego Suarez

Sunday, 20th December

ROTHERHAM and NEPAL

Arrived Kilindini from Durban having been detached from escort to convoy WS 24 A and C M 36.

DURBAN

Left Kilindini for Bombay for repairs – calling Seychelles and Cochin en route for fuel.

NORMAN

Arrived Diego Suarez from Durban having been detached from escort to convoy W S 24 A and C M 36.

Dutch Sub O 23

Arrived Colombo from patrol

Monday, 21st December

CAPETOWN

Arrived Kilindini escorting SS EKMA ex convoy S W 24 A and C M 36 from Durban

BLACKMORE

Arrived Kilindini from Diego Suarez

CARTHAGE

Escorting convoy M J 1 arrived Bombay from Kilindini

WARSPITE (V.A.E.F.), VALIANT, ILLUSTRIOUS, BIRMINGHAM (C.S. 4), GAMBIA, RANPURA, ROTHERHAM (D 11), NEPAL, HOTSPUR, BLACKMORE and DERWENT - Force 'A' to sea for local exercises

DEVONSHIRE

Left Fremantle escorting H.T. AQUITANIA to Aden

FRITILLARY

Left Kilindini for Diego Suarez

Tuesday, 22nd December

PLADDA

Arrived Diego Suarez from Mauritius

GERALDTON and PUNJAB

Left Bandar Abbas escorting convoy P B 18

KANARIS

Left Bandar Abbas escorting convoy P A 16

CLIVE

Escorting convoy P B 17. Arrived Bombay having relieved SUTLEJ off Karachi. The latter to Karachi.

FALMOUTH

Escorting convoy P A 15 arrived Aden

TOOWOOMBA

Left Diego Suarez escorting two ships to Kilindini

RANPURA

returned to Kilindini from exercise with Force 'A'

KIRRIEMOOR

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

Wednesday, 23rd December

DURBAN

Arrived Seychelles from Kilindini

HAWKINS

Left Durban for Kilindini

GAMBIA

exercising from the Eastern Fleet off Kilindini detached to Diego Suarez

Force 'A'

( less GAMBIA) returned to Kilindini from exercises

Thursday, 24th December

PLADDA and SLUNA

Left Diego Suarez for Tamatave

FROBISHER

Arrived Diego Suarez – detached from escort to convoy M C 2 – for fuel

FRITILLARY

Arrived and left Diego Suarez from Kilindini . To fuel and join convoy M C 2 for onward escort to Durban

GAMBIA

Arrived and left Diego Suarez to join convoy M C 2 for onward escort to Durban

DURBAN

Left Seychelles for Cochin and Bombay

Dutch Sub O 24

Arrived Colombo from patrol.

Friday, 25th December

FFS LEOPARD

Arrived Kilindini from Mauritius

FROBISHER

Left Diego Suarez to rejoin convoy M C 2

CARTHAGE

Left Bombay for Aden – earmarked for escort to M C 3.

BURNIE

Left Tamatave escorting H.T. TAKLIWA to Kilindini

Saturday, 26th December

MAURITIUS

Left Bombay for Kilindini

TOOWOOMBA

Escorting oiler BRITISH ENERGY and KUTSANG arrived Kilindini from Diego Suarez

FALMOUTH

Left Aden escorting A P 11 to Bandar Abbas

Sunday, 27th December

GAWLER

Escorting U.S.N. TRINITY arrived Diego Garcia from Fremantle and left the same day for Addu Atoll

HAWKINS

Arrived Kilindini from Durban

DERWENT

Left Kilindini for Dante and Aden

RANPURA

Left Kilindini for Durban

CATTERICK

Escorting R.F.A. RELIANT left Durban for Kilindini

Monday, 28th December

DURBAN

Arrived Cochin and left the same day for Bombay

Tuesday, 29th December

GAWLER

Escorting U.S.N. Tanker TRINITY arrived Addu Atoll

CAIRNS

Arrived Diego Suarez from Kilindini

CARTHAGE

Arrived Aden from Bombay

BURNIE

Arrived Kilindini escorting H.T. TAKLIWA from Tamatave

KANIMBLA

Arrived Fremantle from Colombo escorting convoy S U 5

Wednesday, 30th December

CAIRNS

Left Diego Suarez for Seychelles calling at Agalega Island en route

MAURITIUS

Arrived Kilindini from Bombay

DURBAN

Arrived Bombay for repairs from Kilindini

Thursday, 31st December

NIZAM

Left Durban for Kilindini

CHITRAL

Left Aden escorting convoy A B 5 to Bombay

RANCHI

let Bombay escorting convoy B A 36 to Aden

ROSALIND

Left Seychelles for Kilindini

BRITTANY

Left Diego Suarez for Kilindini

PART II – NARRATIVE

(A) PLANS SECRET

Future Planning

(1). During my visit to Delhi in December on return from United Kingdom, I arranged with the Commander in Chief, India, broad outlines of our proposed arrangements for future planning of large scale operations.

(2). For the present, the Joint Planning Staff, India, are investigating the alternative main plan, and when this has been decided more detailed arrangements will be made for setting up the future planning organization.

Operation “Nibble”

(3). The plan for Operation NIBBLE was considerably modified by the Commander in Chief, India, as a result of my suggestions concerning the combined operations part of this operation.

Combined Operation Planning And Training

(4). A Combined Operations Headquarters (C.O.H.Q.) together with a Combined Training Centre (C.T.C.) has been established in the Bombay area as an Imperial commitment.

(5). The present situation regarding the provision of naval personnel and equipment for C.O.H.Q. and C.T.C. can be summarized as follows:

(a). Officers for C.O.H.Q.

Separate arrangements have been made by Their Lordships for a Staff of one Captain, one Commander, and one Lieutenant Commander to be sent to Bombay from Operation TORCH. It is understood these officers are on their way. As the military side on the C.O.H.Q. is already established, it is hoped the naval team will not be long in arriving.

(b). Chief R.N. Instructor Officer for C.T.C.

I have made a separate proposal to second on Commander from my staff to this important appointment. This Officer is already in India and should be free to join the C.T.C. during February.

(c). Officers and men for Boats’ Crews’ Landing Craft

A considerable number of these are available ex IRONCLAD and are already in India. Some are already working at C.T.C. and the balance should be free to concentrate their in February.

(d). Landing Craft

All the L.C.A. and L.C.M.’s ex IRONCLAD are now in India and a proportion of them are at C.T.C. The remainder should be available to return there in February.

Mobile Naval Base Defence Organisation No. 1

(6). Their Lordships have approved the concentration in India of M.N.B.D.O. No. 1 during early 1943. The majority of the Royal Marine Groups are already in India, and arrangements are in hand for the remaining R.M. Groups to proceed to India and Addu where they have been employed up to the present.

The R.N. Boat Company which up to the present has been employed with Landing and Maintenance R.M. Groups at Addu will also be sent to Bombay on relief by, it is hoped, Indian personnel. ARMINDIA is investigating this possibility.

Site for M.N.B.D.O. No. 1 to Train in India

(7). A site has been selected near the Gulf of Kutch and it is hoped this will prove satisfactory, and being reasonably near Combined Training center (near Bombay), this should facilitate Joint Training in Combined Operations work.

(8). I have directed that the M.N.B.D.O. is to be trained for the following alternative functions:

(a). For its individual groups to operated in conjunction with a Combined Assault Force.

(b). For the M.N.B.D.O. to operate as a complete separate organization.

Naval Groups For M.N.B.D.O. No. 1

(9). The Naval Groups belonging to M.N.B.D.O. No. 1 which originally accompanied it to the Mediterranean are now all dispersed in that theatre and only the Royal Marine Groups remain in the organization.

Although, manifestly, it is not possible at this stage to forecast the port for which M.N.B.D.O. No. 1 may one day be required, I have separately recommended to Their Lordships that the material for the Controlled Mining Units and Indicator Loops should be assembled at Ceylon as soon as available, the quantity of equipment being similar to that laid down in C.B. 1936/34.

In addition I have recommended that the Base Staff (N.O.I.C. size) and personnel for the Controlled Mining Units should be earmarked and ready to sail from the United Kingdom at immediate notice after May 1943.

If this course is adopted it should ensure that the complete M.N.B.D. Organisation being available in the Indian Ocean in time for any possible future operations.

(B.) CONVOYS

EMPLOYMENT OF CRUISERS AND A.M.C.’s ON OCEAN ESCORT DUTY DURING MONTH OF DECEMBER.

10.

HMS MAURITIUS

MAURITIUS escorting convoy B a 34 sailed from Bombay on 3rd December and was detached on relief by local A/S escort from Aden at 55 degrees East to proceed to Seychelles to fuel.

After fuelling, MAURITIUS sailed to R/V with W S 24 B east of Seychelles and relieved HMS FROBISHER as escort for that convoy.

MAURITIUS and convoy arrived Bombay on the 17th December.

HMS DEVONSHIRE

DEVONSHIRE escorting MAURETANIA arrived Fremantle on the 3rd December and sailed from that port with U S 18, consisting of AQUITANIA, arriving Aden 2nd January.

HMS GAMBIA

GAMBIA having R/V’d with Convoy O W 1 consisting of three ships, AGWIPRINCE, TARAKAN, and TATRA in position 21-24S, 95-07E on the 29th November and remained with the convoy until in the vicinity of Addu Atoll, where she was relieved by A/S vessels SUTLEJ and JUMNA from Colombo. After fuelling at Addu Atoll, GAMBIA proceeded independently to Kilindini.

HMS WORCESTERSHIRE

WORCESTERSHIRE sailed from Kilindini on the 26th November with Convoy C M 35 B, consisting of DUNERA and EMPRESS OF RUSSIA, for Bombay, arriving on 6th December.

WORCESTERSHIRE sailed from Bombay with Convoy B A 35 for Aden and was relieved by local A/S escorts from Aden on Meridian 55 degrees East, returning to Bombay independently for periodical overhaul to main engines.

HMS RANCHI

RANCHI sailed with convoy A B 4 for Bombay on the 2nd December, arriving Bombay on the 10th. After cleaning boilers at Bombay, RANCHI sailed with Convoy B A 36 arriving Aden on the 7th January.

HMS CARTHAGE

CARTHAGE sailed from Kilindini on the 11th December with convoy M J 1 for Bombay, arriving at the latter port on the 21st December, sailing on arrival for Aden where she arrived on the 28th December in preparation to form part escort for Convoy M C 3.

HMS CAPETOWN

CAPETOWN sailed with CHITRAL from Durban on 13th December as escort to Convoy W S 24 A, being relieved by CERES in the vicinity of Diego Suarez, and proceeding thence to Kilindini where she arrived on the 21st.

HMS CERES

CERES sailed from Kilindini on the 19th December to relieve CAPETOWN as escort to W S 24 A and proceed in company with CHITRAL as escort to the Convoy until arrival at Aden on the 27th December.

HMS FROBISHER

FROBISHER sailed from Durban with W S 24 B on the 6th December and was relieved by MAURITIUS east of Seychelles. After proceeding to Seychelles for fuel, FROBISHER sailed for Aden, arriving on the 16th December. FROBISHER sailed as escort to convoy M C 2 with South African military personnel on the 17th, and was relieved by GAMBIA off Diego Suarez.

On the 17th, FROBISHER proceeded to Diego Suarez for fuel, and rejoined the convoy the following day, forming escort with GAMBIA and FRITILLARY until south of Madagascar, where the escort was further strengthened by the addition of two destroyers and two corvettes. Convoy arrived Durban on the 31st December.

HMS CHITRAL

CHITRAL sailed from Durban in company with CAPETOWN as escort for Convoy W S 24 A and arrived at Aden on the 27th. She sailed again from Aden on the 31st with Convoy A B 5 to arrive Bombay on 6th January.

HMS DAUNTLESS

DAUNTLESS, who had sailed from Kilindini on 27th November escorting SONTAY, arrived at Aden on 5th December.

HMS RANPURA

RANPURA sailed from Aden on 6th December as escort for Convoy A K 5, arriving Kilindini on the 11th.

(C) BASES

11. Kilindini

Admiralty have agreed the present net defences are adequate and that the new ones proposed are not now necessary.

Local developments are continuing.

12. Seychelles

The laying of the A/S A/B boom in Cerf Passage is being done by ETHIOPIAN.

Boom Defence Officer, East Africa, visited Seychelles to see the work being down, and in connection with the proposed Boom Defence Depot on St. Anne Island

13. Diego Suarez

On the 3rd December a crossing was detected and C.M. loop 4 was fired. It will not be possible to relay this loop until MANCHESTER CITY can be released from Saldhana Bay about the end of February.

Dry dock is now available for use for emergency docking.

During the month, BRITTANY, KIRRIEMOOR, DEVON CITY, BARFOAM, and BARFOUNT were sent to Diego Suarez to lay the A/S A/B Boom and bottom net.

BRITTANY completed laying of the bottom net on December 31st. Work on the boom is going on.

Admiralty has approved the laying of three H.D.A.s in Oranjia Pass and the Fleet A/S Fixed Defence Officer is now at Diego Suarez in this connection.

14. Mauritius

Local developments are progressing

15. Trincomalee

Developments are progressing.

The position of H.D.A.s and indicator loops are still under consideration.

16. Diego Garcia

Admiralty has agreed to abandon any further work on the indicator nets and to cancel the building of a Boom Defence Depot.

17. Addu Atoll

Work on the Aerodrome at Gan, and on local developments, is proceeding.

18. Khor Kuwai

Senior Naval Officer, Persian Gulf, has tried to use Khasab Bay as a convoy assembly port, but had had to revert to Bandar Abbas because Khasab Bay is too exposed to winter weather.

(D) GUNNERY

19. Battle Practice Target at Kilindini is now in two halves, but the forward half is still in use as a target.

The first of the new Battle Practice Targets building at Simonstown will be ready to leave Simonstown about the middle of February.

20. A wreck in Manza Bay is now being used as a Bombardment and Bombing Target

(E) COMMUNICATIONS

21. During the month, trials have been carried out to investigate the possibility of using the High Power V.L/F W/T transmitter at Tanararive Radio, Madagascar for naval services. Trials are not yet concluded, but have not been satisfactory as was hoped moreover it is impossible at the present to provide even the small number of naval personnel which would be necessary to supervise the handing of Naval W/T traffic. It is likely, therefore, that this scheme must for the present be placed in abeyance.

22. A W/T fixed service has been instituted between Kilindini and Aden, thereby considerably improving communications to the northward from Kilindini. Bombay Force W/T also takes part in this service, for twelve hours out of the twenty four, due to lack of available material for continual operation. Communications with Bombay on the same frequencies as are required for Aden has not, however, been found to be satisfactory.

23. The representative of the Commander in Chief, Eastern Fleet, Lieutenant Commander McClelland, Royal Navy, has continued his survey of new W/T stations to be provided under W/T Plan R, arriving in Ceylon on the 21st December 1942. So far detailed reports of requirements at Aden and Basra prepared with his assistance, have been forwarded to the Admiralty, while that for Bahrein is about to be despatched.

24. A preliminary reorganization of communications in the Persian Gulf has been completed. This will progress rapidly as new material and additional personnel become available. In this connection the manning of Persian Gulf W/T Stations by the Royal Indian Navy is again under consideration since it now appears unlikely that they will be able fully to meet either current commitments or the increased number required when W/T Plan R is fully implemented.

25. The proposed to divert the Durban-Zanzibar cable to Majunga has been turned down by the Admiralty as impracticable. An alternate method of communicating by L/T with Madagascar is by means of the Mauritius-Reunion-Tamatave cable. The Cable ship RECORDER is now en route for the area to carry out repairs to this cable which is at present faulty either side of Reunion.

(E) MINESWEEPING

26. There has been no evidence of enemy minelaying

27. During December two Bathursts arrived at Kilindini from Australia – HMAS TOOWOOMBA and HMAS CESSNOCK

28. There remain two Bathursts to join the Eastern Fleet, HMAS GAWLER and HMAS TAMWORTH. GAWLER is on passage, no sailing date yet received for TAMWORTH. Both these vessels will be stationed at Colombo

(F) INTELLIGENCE

29.

11th December - Paymaster Captain H.L. Shaw, R.N. (Retired) left for United Kingdom

21st December - Paymaster Lieutenant Commander R.W. Michell, R.N. returned from Cairo after a course of instruction at the C.S.D.I.C. Cairo

28th December - Acting Commander B.H. Holmes, OBE, RN. Relieved Acting Commander T.P. Wisden, RN as Deputy Chief of the Intelligence Staff. Commander R.M. Laird, RN (Retired), Staff Officer (Intelligence) Afloat, made liaison visits to New Delhi and Cairo during the month.

CAPTURE OF REUNION BY FFS LEOPARD

LEOPARD sailed from Port Louis, Mauritius, on the afternoon of the 27th November 1942 and arrived off St Denis, Reunion, just before midnight 27th/28th. An advance guard was landed in two boats and four hours later was followed by the main party which seized the W/T Station, Barracks, and Governor’s House. The party then split up and occupied the neighbouring towns and villages.

2. The new Governor was then landed and after addressing the natives who had collected in the Town Square cheering, he took office.

3. The pro Vichy Colonial Secretary escaped by car to the Governor’s summer residence in the mountains where he joined the ex Governor who had retired there with 400 troops.


A small fishing boat was off Langley point

Out in the Channel was a small fishing boat off Langley point and manned by two fishermen, Alec Huggett and Micky Andrews, both from Eastbourne. They suddenly found they were at the mercy of these retreating German Fighter-bombers and had no shelter. The aircraft shot at them, hitting both men who were seriously injured as a result. The local people’s anger knew no bounds when at 9.15pm the same day William Joyce, known as Lord Haw-Haw, said in his broadcast that an armed trawler had been attacked off the coast of Eastbourne. He was totally wrong as the two men badly injured were local fisherman and carried no arms of any description.

A powerful new feature of this raid, apart from the fire-power of the fighters being turned against ordinary unarmed civilians, was that almost every bomb caused serious damage. In general, the fighter pilots with their medium-capacity bombs had caused maximum damage and death.

The whole raid lasted less than 4 minutes but served as a warning to the authorities just how damaging these types of raids were. It appears that the Germans had found a formula which really worked. More were to come before the war was finished.