CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

Nassau
(CVE-16: dp. 9,800; 1. 495'8"; b. 111'6", dr. 26'; s. 18 k.;
cpl. 890; a. 2 5", 20 40mm., 21 ae.;cl. Bogue; T. C3-S-A1)

Nassau (CVE-16) was laid down 27 November 1941 by the Seattle-Taeoma Shipbuilding Corp., Taeoma, Washington, as M C~ Hull No. 234; launched 4 April 1942; sponsored by Mrs. G. H. Hasselman, Tongue Point, Oregon, acquired by the Navy 1 May, towed to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton, Washington, and converted to an escort earrier; and commissioned 20 August, Captain Austin K. Doyle in eommand.

On the 10th of October Nassau arrived at the Naval Air Station, Alameda, California, loaded aircraft, and four days later steamed for Pearl Harbor, thence to Palmyra Island, arriving 30 October. For the next four months she operated between Palmyra and Noumea, New Caledonia and Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides.

Nassau returned to Pearl Harbor 14 February 1943' embarked personnel and aircraft, and sailed the 21st on a ferry mission to Espiritu Santo. She returned to Pearl Harbor in mid-March and then continued on to Alameda, California. In April she moved to San Diego and eondueted flight training operations, after which she rendezvoused with Task Group 51.1 and steamed for Cold Bay, Alaska with VC-21 embarked.

Nassau got underway on a search mission 4 May and eondueted flight operations with Task Force 51, providing air cover for the occupation of Attu Island from 11 through 20 May. She returned to San Diego in late May, arrived at Alameda 8 June and onloaded 45 aircraft destined for Brisbane, Australia. She delivered the aircraft 2 July and returned to San Diego via Noumea, New Caledonia.

In August, she trained off San Diego before ferrying planes to Samoa. Returning to San Diego from Samoa, 19 October,

Nassau embarked Marine Fighter Squadron 225 for passage to Pearl Harbor. Arriving the 30th, she conducted air operations off Pearl Harbor during the early days of November and on the 7th she embarked VF-1 and steamed for the Gfllert Islands for operations with Task Force 52.

Nassau's mission was to transport VF-1 to Tarawa and to send it ashore as soon as facilities were available. The invasion of Tarawa commenced 20 November but encountered bitter resistance. As a result, VF-1 was assigned combat nir patrol and flew bombing and strafing runs from the earrier in support of the assault troops. The Squadron flew a total of 106 missions and spent 237 hours of flying time in four days of operations without losing a single plane or pilot.

Nassau returned to Pearl Harbor on 5 December following flight operations. She then sailed to the Marshall Islands with Ta~sk Group 51.2 and launched strikes 29 January 1944 against Taroa Field on Maloelap Atoll. The next day the Task Group centered its operations around Kwajalein, Wotje, and Maloelap Atolls, with Nassau eondueting both anti-submarine and combat air patrols.

Nassau returned to Pearl Harbor 3 March, disembarked VC-66, and took on aircraft, cargo, and passengers for ferry to the Marshall Islands. Throughout March, ferry missions were performed between Kwajalein, Majuro, and Pearl Harbor. After repairs and alterations at Mare Island Navy Yard, the earrier sailed with 51 aircraft for Finsehhafen, New Guinea 5 May. The next four months she performed ferry missions from San Diego to Pearl Harbor, the Admiralties and the New Hebrides Islands.

Upon arrival at Seeadler Harbor 1 September, Nassau reported to Commander Task Group 30.8. Thus began her tour of duty with Admiral Halsey's 3rd fleet, which made unpreeedente] naval history in the following months. Nassau's mission was to operate out of the Admiralties with other escort earriers to provide replacement aircraft and pilots for the attack carriers of Task Force 38. Steaming in company with the oiler groups, which refueled the ships of the Task Force at sea, Nassau made three cruises into the western Pacific. She returned to the Admiralties with disabled aircraft which were destined for shipment to Pearl Harbor or the United States for reconditioning.

The first of these replacement trips was in support of the strikes against Palau, the second in support of operations against the southern and central Philippines. Then Task Force 38 shifted to more northerly targets in the Philippines and Formosa. Nassau reached Manus 20 October. After offloading old aircraft and taking on new ones, she departed on her last replacement trip. Steaming to Ulithi Atoll in the Carolinc~ Islands, she joined up with Task Groups 38.1 and 38.3 on 28 October and transferred 70 aircraft and 43 pilots to the atts~ok earriers.

Task Unit 12.6.1, composed of Nassau, Tennessee, and four other ships steamed for Pearl Harbor 5 November, arriving the 16th. Two days later Nassau was dispatched to San Diego. Among her passengers were 382 survivors of light carrier Pr~nceton (CVL-23), which was sunk in the Battle for Leyte Gulf 24 October 1944 Another ferry mission to Pearl Harbor followed in mid-November, with three more runs to Guam in December, January, and February. Nassau returned to Alameda, California, 23 March and through the remainder of the war ,cerformed transport and ferry missions between Alameda, Pearl Harbor, Guam, Manus, Samar, and Saipan.

Nassau departed Alameda 13 May 1946 for Tacoma, Washington. On 28 October, she decommissioned and entered the Pacific Reserve Fleet. Designated for modification for aireraft transportation purposes, her class)fication was changed to CVH~16, 12 June 1955. Shortly thereafter she transferred to the Bremerton Reserve Group, and was struck from the Navy Register 1 March 1959. In June 1961 she was towed to Japan for scrapping.

Nassau received five battle stars for World War II service.


CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

AN ACT to Establish a Program for the Preservation of Additional Historic Properties throughout the Nation, and for Other Purposes, Approved October 15, 1966 (Public Law 89-665 80 STAT.915 16 U.S.C. 470) as amended by Public Law 91-243, Public Law 93-54, Public Law 94-422, Public Law 94-458, Public Law 96-199, Public Law 96-244, Public Law 96-515, Public Law 98-483, Public Law 99-514, Public Law 100-127, and Public Law 102-575).

Italics indicates new text.

Strikeout indicates text removed.

Section 1 (16 U.S.C. 470)

(a) This Act may be cited as the "National Historic Preservation Act."

(b) The Congress finds and declares that-

(1) the spirit and direction of the Nation are founded upon and reflected in its historic heritage

(2) the historical and cultural foundations of the Nation should be preserved as a living part of our community life and development in order to give a sense of orientation to the American people

(3) historic properties significant to the Nation's heritage are being lost or substantially altered, often inadvertently, with increasing frequency

(4) the preservation of this irreplaceable heritage is in the public interest so that its vital legacy of cultural, educational, aesthetic, inspirational, economic, and energy benefits will be maintained and enriched for future generations of Americans

(5) in the face of ever-increasing extensions of urban centers, highways, and residential, commercial, and industrial developments, the present governmental and nongovernmental historic preservation programs and activities are inadequate to insure future generations a genuine opportunity to appreciate and enjoy the rich heritage of our Nation

(6) the increased knowledge of our historic resources, the establishment of better means of identifying and administering them, and the encouragement of their preservation will improve the planning and execution of federal and federally assisted projects and will assist economic growth and development and

(7) although the major burdens of historic preservation have been borne and major efforts initiated by private agencies and individuals, and both should continue to play a vital role, it is nevertheless necessary and appropriate for the Federal Government to accelerate its historic preservation programs and activities, to give maximum encouragement to agencies and individuals undertaking preservation by private means, and to assist State and local governments and the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States to expand and accelerate their historic preservation programs and activities.

Section 2 (16 U.S.C. 470-1)

It shall be the policy of the Federal Government, in cooperation with other nations and in partnership with the States, local governments, Indian tribes, and private organizations and individuals to-

(1) use measures, including financial and technical assistance, to foster conditions under which our modern society and our prehistoric and historic resources can exist in productive harmony and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations

(2) provide leadership in the preservation of the prehistoric and historic resources of the United States and of the international community of nations and in the administration of the national preservation program in partnership with States, Indian tribes, Native Hawaiians, and local governments

(3) administer federally owned, administered, or controlled prehistoric and historic resources in a spirit of stewardship for the inspiration and benefit of present and future generations

(4) contribute to the preservation of nonfederally owned prehistoric and historic resources and give maximum encouragement to organizations and individuals undertaking preservation by private means

(5) encourage the public and private preservation and utilization of all usable elements of the Nation's historic built environment and

(6) assist State and local governments, Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations and the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States to expand and accelerate their historic preservation programs and activities.

Section 101 (16 U.S.C. 470a)

(a) (1) (A) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to expand and maintain a National Register of Historic Places composed of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture.

(B) Properties meeting the criteria for National Historic Landmarks established pursuant to paragraph (2) shall be designated as "National Historic Landmarks" and included on the National Register, subject to the requirements of paragraph (6). All historic properties included on the National Register on the date of enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980 shall be deemed to be included on the National Register as of their initial listing for purposes of this Act. All historic properties listed in the Federal Register of February 6, 1979, as "National Historic Landmarks" or thereafter prior to the effective date of this Act are declared by Congress to be National historic Landmarks of national historic significance as of their initial listing as such in the Federal Register for purposes of this Act and the Act of August 21, 1935 (49 Stat.666) except that in cases of National Historic Landmark districts for which no boundaries have been established, boundaries must first be published in the Federal Register and submitted to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate and to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives.

(2) The Secretary in consultation with national historic and archaeological associations, shall establish or revise criteria for properties to be included on the National Register and criteria for National Historic Landmarks, and shall also promulgate or revise regulations as may be necessary for-

(A) nominating properties for inclusion in, and removal from, the National Register and the recommendation of properties by certified local governments

(B) designating properties as National Historic Landmarks and removing such designation

(C) considering appeals from such recommendations, nomination, removals, and designations (or any failure or refusal by a nominating authority to nominate or designate)

(D) nominating historic properties for inclusion in the World Heritage List in accordance with the terms of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

(E) making determinations of eligibility of properties for inclusion on the National Register and

(F) notifying the owner of a property, and any appropriate local governments, and the general public when the property is being considered for inclusion on the National Register, for designation as a National Historic Landmark or for nomination to the World Heritage List.

(3) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (6), any State which is carrying out a program approved under subsection (b), shall nominate to the Secretary properties which meet the criteria promulgated under subsection (a) for inclusion on the National Register. Subject to paragraph (6), any property nominated under this paragraph or under section 110 (a) (2) shall be included on the National Register on the date forty-five days after receipt by the Secretary of the nomination and the necessary documentation, unless the Secretary disapproves such nomination within such forty-five day period or unless an appeal is filed under paragraph (5).

(4) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (6) the Secretary may accept a nomination directly from any person or local government for inclusion of a property on the National Register only if such property is located in a State where there is no program approved under subsection (b). The Secretary may include on the National Register any property for which such a nomination is made if he determines that such property is eligible in accordance with the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2). Such determinations shall be made within ninety days from the date of nomination unless the nomination is appealed under paragraph (5).

(5) Any person or local government may appeal to the Secretary a nomination of any historic property for inclusion on the National Register and may appeal to the Secretary the failure or refusal of a nominating authority to nominate a property in accordance with this subsection.

(6) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations requiring that before any property or district may be included on the National register or designated as a National Historic Landmark, the owner or owners of such property, or a majority of the owners of the properties within the district in the case of an historic district, shall be given the opportunity (including a reasonable period of time) to concur in, or object to, the nomination of the property or district for such inclusion or designation. If the owner or owners of any privately owned property, or a majority of the owners of such properties within the district in the case of an historic district, object to such inclusion or designation, such property shall not be included on the National Register or designated as a National Historic Landmark until such objection is withdrawn. The Secretary shall review the nomination of the property or district where any such objection has been made and shall determine whether or not the property or district is eligible for such inclusion or designation, and if the Secretary determines that such property or district is eligible for such inclusion or designation, he shall inform the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer, the appropriate chief elected local official and the owner or owners of such property, of his determination. The regulations under this paragraph shall include provisions to carry out the purposes of this paragraph in the case of multiple ownership of a single property.

(7) The Secretary shall promulgate, or revise, regulations-

(A) ensuring that significant prehistoric and historic artifacts, and associated records, subject to section 110 of this Act, the Act of June 27, 1960 (16 U.S.C. 469c), and the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (16 U.S.C. 470aa and

following) are deposited in an institution with adequate long-term curatorial capabilities

(B) establishing a uniform process and standards for documenting historic properties by public agencies and private parties for purposes of incorporation into, or complementing, the national historic architectural and engineering records within the Library of Congress and

(C) certifying local governments, in accordance with subsection (c)(1) and for the allocation of funds pursuant to section 103 (c) of this Act.

(8) The Secretary shall, at least once every 4 years, in consultation with the Council and with State Historic Preservation Officers, review significant threats to properties included in, or eligible for inclusion on, the National Register, in order to-

(A) determine the kinds of properties that may be threatened

(B) ascertain the causes of the threats and

(C) develop and submit to the President and Congress recommendations for appropriate action.

(b) (1) The Secretary, in consultation with the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, shall promulgate or revise regulations for State Historic Preservation Programs. Such regulations shall provide that a State program submitted to the Secretary under this section shall be approved by the Secretary if he determines that the program-

(A) provides for the designation and appointment by the Governor of a "State Historic Preservation Officer" to administer such program in accordance with paragraph (3) and for the employment or appointment by such officer of such professionally qualified staff as may be necessary for such purposes

(B) provides for an adequate and qualified State historic preservation review board designated by the State Historic Preservation Officer unless otherwise provided for by State law and

(C) provides for adequate public participation in the State Historic Preservation Program, including the process of recommending properties for nomination to the National Register.

(2) (A) Periodically, but not less than every 4 years after the approval of any State program under this subsection, the Secretary, in consultation with the Council on the appropriate provisions of this Act, and in cooperation with the State Historic

Preservation Officer, shall evaluate the program to determine whether it is consistent with this Act.

(B) If, at any time, the Secretary determines that a major aspect of a State program is not consistent with this Act, the Secretary shall disapprove the program and suspend in whole or in part any contracts or cooperative agreements with the State and the State Historic Preservation Officer under this Act, until the program is consistent with this Act, unless the Secretary determines that the program will be made consistent with this Act within a reasonable period of time.

(C) The Secretary, in consultation with State Historic Preservation Officers, shall establish oversight methods to ensure State program consistency and quality without imposing undue review burdens on State Historic Preservation Officers.

(D) At the discretion of the Secretary, a State system of fiscal audit and management may be substituted for comparable Federal systems so long as the State system-

(i) establishes and maintains substantially similar accountability standards and

(ii) provides for independent professional peer review.

The Secretary may also conduct periodic fiscal audits of State programs approved under this section as needed and shall ensure that such programs meet applicable accountability standards.

(3) It shall be the responsibility of the State Historic Preservation Officer to administer the State Historic Preservation Program and to-

(A) in cooperation with Federal and State agencies, local governments, and private organizations and individuals, direct and conduct a comprehensive statewide survey of historic properties and maintain inventories of such properties

(B) identify and nominate eligible properties to the National Register and otherwise administer applications for listing historic properties on the National Register

(C) prepare and implement a comprehensive statewide historic preservation plan

(D) administer the State program of Federal assistance for historic preservation within the State

(E) advise and assist, as appropriate, Federal and State agencies and local governments in carrying out their historic preservation responsibilities

(F) cooperate with the Secretary, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and other Federal and State agencies, local governments, and organizations and individuals to ensure that historic properties are taken into consideration at all levels of planning and development

(G) provide public information, education and training, and technical assistance in historic preservation

(H) cooperate with local governments in the development of local historic preservation programs and assist local governments in becoming certified pursuant to subsection (c)

(I) consult with the appropriate Federal agencies in accordance with this Act on-

(i) Federal undertakings that may affect historic properties and

(ii) the content and sufficiency of any plans developed to protect, manage, or to reduce or mitigate harm to such properties and

(J) advise and assist in the evaluation of proposals for rehabilitation projects that may qualify for Federal assistance.

(4) Any State may carry out all or any part of its responsibilities under this subsection by contract or cooperative agreement with any qualified nonprofit organization or educational institution.

(5) Any State historic preservation program in effect under prior authority of law may be treated as an approved program for purposes of this subsection until the earlier of-

(A) the date on which the Secretary approves a program submitted by the State under this subsection, or

(B) three years after the date of the enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1992.

(6) (A) Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), the Secretary may enter into contracts or cooperative agreements with a State Historic Preservation Officer for any State authorizing such Officer to assist the Secretary in carrying out one or more of the following responsibilities within that State-

(i) Identification and preservation of historic properties.

(ii) Determination of the eligibility of properties for listing on the National Register.

(iii) Preparation of nominations for inclusion on the National Register.

(iv) Maintenance of historical and archaeological data bases.

(v) Evaluation of eligibility for Federal preservation incentives.

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to provide that any State Historic Preservation Officer or any other person other than the Secretary shall have the authority to maintain the National Register for properties in any State.

(B) The Secretary may enter into a contract or cooperative agreement under subparagraph (A) only if-

(i) the State Historic Preservation Officer has requested the additional responsibility

(ii) the Secretary has approved the State historic preservation program pursuant to section 101(b)(1) and (2)

(iii) the State Historic Preservation Officer agrees to carry out the additional responsibility in a timely and efficient manner acceptable to the Secretary and the Secretary determines that such Officer is fully capable of carrying out such responsibility in such manner

(iv) the State Historic Preservation Officer agrees to permit the Secretary to review and revise, as appropriate in the discretion of the Secretary, decisions made by the Officer pursuant to such contract or cooperative agreement and

(v) the Secretary and the State Historic Preservation Officer agree on the terms of additional financial assistance to the State, if there is to be any, for the costs of carrying out such responsibility.

(C) For each significant program area under the Secretary's authority, the Secretary shall establish specific conditions and criteria essential for the assumption by State Historic Preservation Officers of the Secretary's duties in each such program.

(D) Nothing in this subsection shall have the effect of diminishing the preservation programs and activities of the National Park Service.

(c) (1) Any State program approved under this section shall provide a mechanism for the certification by the State Historic Preservation Officer of local governments to carry out the purposes of this Act and provide for the transfer, in accordance with section 103(c), of a portion of the grants received by the States under this Act, to such local governments. Any local government shall be certified to participate under the provisions of this section if the applicable State Historic Preservation Officer, and the Secretary, certifies that the local government-

(A) enforces appropriate State or local legislation for the designation and protection of historic properties

(B) has established an adequate and qualified historic preservation review commission by State or local legislation

(C) maintains a system for the survey and inventory of historic properties that furthers the purposes of subsection (b)

(D) provides for adequate public participation in the local historic preservation program, including the process of recommending properties for nomination to the National Register and

(E) satisfactorily performs the responsibilities delegated to it under this Act.

Where there is no approved State program, a local government may be certified by the Secretary if he determines that such local government meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) through (E) and in any such case the Secretary may make grants-in-aid to the local government for purposes of this section.

(2) (A) Before a property within the jurisdiction of the certified local government may be considered by the State to be nominated to the Secretary for inclusion on the National Register, the State Historic Preservation Officer shall notify the owner, the applicable chief local elected official, and the local historic preservation commission. The commission, after reasonable opportunity for public comment, shall prepare a report as to whether or not such property, in its opinion, meets the criteria of the National Register. Within sixty days of notice from the State Historic Preservation Officer, the chief local elected official shall transmit the report of the commission and his recommendation to the state Historic Preservation Officer. Except as provided in subparagraph (B), after receipt of such report and recommendation, or if no such report and recommendation are received within sixty days, the State shall make the nomination pursuant to section 101(a). The State may expedite such process with the concurrence of the certified local government.

(B) If both the commission and the chief local elected official recommend that a property not be nominated to the National Register, the State Historic Preservation Officer shall take no further action, unless within thirty days of the receipt of such recommendation by the State Historic Preservation Officer an appeal is filed with the State. If such an appeal is filed, the State shall follow the procedures for making a

nomination pursuant to Section 101 (a). Any report and recommendations made under this section shall be included with any nomination submitted by the State to the Secretary.

(3) Any local government certified under this section or which is making efforts to become so certified shall be eligible for funds under the provision of section 103 (c) of this Act, and shall carry out any responsibilities delegated to it in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems necessary or advisable.

(4) For the purposes of this section the term-

(A) "designation" means the identification and registration of properties for protection that meet criteria established by the State or the locality for significant historic and prehistoric resources within the jurisdiction of a local government and

(B) "protection" means a local review process under State or local law for proposed demolition of, changes to, or other action that may affect historic properties designated pursuant to subsection (c).

(d) (1) (A) The Secretary shall establish a program and promulgate regulations to assist Indian tribes in preserving their particular historic properties. The Secretary shall foster communication and cooperation between Indian tribes and State Historic Preservation Officers in the administration of the national historic preservation program to ensure that all types of historic properties and all public interests in such properties are given due consideration, and to encourage coordination among Indian tribes, State Historic Preservation Officers, and Federal agencies in historic preservation planning and in the identification, evaluation, protection, and interpretation of historic properties.

(B) The program under subparagraph (A) shall be developed in such a manner as to ensure that tribal values are taken into account to the extent feasible. The Secretary may waive or modify requirements of this section to conform to the cultural setting of tribal heritage preservation goals and objectives. The tribal programs implemented by specific tribal organizations may vary in scope, as determined by each tribe's chief governing authority.

(C) The Secretary shall consult with Indian tribes, other Federal agencies, State Historic Preservation Officers, and other interested parties and initiate the program under subparagraph (A) by not later than October 1, 1994.

(2) A tribe may assume all or any part of the functions of a State Historic Preservation Officer in accordance with subsections (b)(2) and (b)(3), with respect to tribal lands, as such responsibilities may be modified for tribal programs through regulations issued by the Secretary if-

(A) the tribe's chief governing authority so requests

(B) the tribe designates a tribal preservation official to administer the tribal historic preservation program, through appointment by the tribe's chief governing authority or as a tribal ordinance may otherwise provide

(C) the tribal preservation official provides the Secretary with a plan describing how the functions the tribal preservation official proposes to assume will be carried out

(D) the Secretary determines, after consultation with the tribe, the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer, the Council (if the tribe proposes to assume the functions of the State Historic Preservation Officer with respect to review of undertakings under section 106), and other tribes, if any, whose tribal or aboriginal lands may be affected by conduct of the tribal preservation program-

(i) that the tribal preservation program is fully capable of carrying out the functions specified in the plan provided under subparagraph (C)

(ii) that the plan defines the remaining responsibilities of the Secretary and the State Historic Preservation Officer

(iii) that the plan provides, with respect to properties neither owned by a member of the tribe nor held in trust by the Secretary for the benefit of the tribe, at the request of the owner thereof, the State Historic Preservation Officer, in addition to the tribal preservation official, may exercise the historic preservation responsibilities in accordance with subsections (b)(2) and (b)(3) and

(E) based on satisfaction of the conditions stated in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D), the Secretary approves the plan.

(3) In consultation with interested Indian tribes, other Native American organizations and affected State Historic Preservation Officers, the Secretary shall establish and implement procedures for carrying out section 103(a) with respect to tribal programs that assume responsibilities under paragraph (2).

(4) At the request of a tribe whose preservation program has been approved to assume functions and responsibilities pursuant to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall enter into contracts or cooperative agreements with such tribe permitting the assumption by the tribe of any part of the responsibilities referred to in subsection (b)(6) on tribal land, if-

(A) the Secretary and the tribe agree on additional financial assistance, if any, to the tribe for the costs of carrying out such authorities

(B) the Secretary finds that the tribal historic preservation program has been demonstrated to be sufficient to carry out the contract or cooperative agreement and this Act and

(C) the contract or cooperative agreement specifies the continuing responsibilities of the Secretary or of the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers and provides for appropriate participation by-

(i) the tribe's traditional cultural authorities

(ii) representatives of other tribes whose traditional lands are under the jurisdiction of the tribe assuming responsibilities and

(iii) the interested public.

(5) The Council may enter into an agreement with an Indian tribe to permit undertakings on tribal land to be reviewed under tribal historic preservation regulations in place of review under regulations promulgated by the Council to govern compliance with section 106, if the Council, after consultation with the tribe and appropriate State Historic Preservation Officers, determines that the tribal preservation regulations will afford historic properties consideration equivalent to those afforded by the Council's regulations.

(6) (A) Properties of traditional religious and cultural importance to an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization may be determined to be eligible for inclusion on the National Register.

(B) In carrying out its responsibilities under section 106, a Federal agency shall consult with any Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization that attaches religious and cultural significance to properties described in subparagraph (A).

(C) In carrying out his or her responsibilities under subsection (b)(3), the State Historic Preservation Officer for the State of Hawaii shall-

(i) consult with Native Hawaiian organizations in assessing the cultural significance of any property in determining whether to nominate such property to the National Register

(ii) consult with Native Hawaiian organizations in developing the cultural component of a preservation program or plan for such property and

(iii) enter into a memorandum of understanding or agreement with Native Hawaiian organizations for the assessment of the cultural significance of a property in determining whether to nominate such property to the National Register and to carry out the cultural component of such preservation program or plan.

(e) (1) The Secretary shall administer a program of matching grants to the States for the purposes of carrying out this Act.

(2) The Secretary shall administer a program of matching grants-in-aid to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, chartered by Act of Congress approved October 26, 1949 (63 Stat. 947), for the purposes of carrying out the responsibilities of the National Trust.

(3) (A) In addition to the programs under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Secretary shall administer a program of direct grants for the preservation of properties included on the National Register. Funds to support such program annually shall not exceed 10 per centum of the amount appropriated annually for the fund established under section 108. These grants may be made by the Secretary, in consultation with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer-

(i) for the preservation of National Historic Landmarks which are threatened with demolition or impairment and for the preservation of historic properties of World Heritage significance

(ii) for demonstration projects which will provide information concerning professional methods and techniques having application to historic properties

(iii) for the training and development of skilled labor in trades and crafts, and in analysis and curation, relating to historic preservation and,

(iv) to assist persons or small businesses within any historic district included in the National Register to remain within the district.

(B) The Secretary may also, in consultation with the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer, make grants or loans or both under this section to Indian tribes and to nonprofit organizations representing ethnic or minority groups for the preservation of their cultural heritage.

(C) Grants may be made under subparagraph (A)(i) and (iv) only to the extent that the project cannot be carried out in as effective a manner through the use of an insured loan under section 104.

(4) Grants may be made under this subsection for the preservation, stabilization, restoration, or rehabilitation of religious properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places, provided that the purpose of the grant is secular, does not promote religion, and seeks to protect those qualities that are historically significant. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to authorize the use of any funds made available under this section for the acquisition of any property referred to in the preceding sentence.

(5) The Secretary shall administer a program of direct grants to Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations for the purpose of carrying out this Act as it pertains to Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations. Matching fund requirements may be modified. Federal funds available to a tribe or Native Hawaiian organization may be used as matching funds for the purposes of the tribe's or organization's conducting its responsibilities pursuant to this section.

(6) (A) As a part of the program of matching grant assistance from the Historic Preservation Fund to States, the Secretary shall administer a program of direct grants to the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and upon termination of the Trusteeship Agreement for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Republic of Palau (referred to as the Micronesian States) in furtherance of the Compact of Free Association between the United States and the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, approved by the Compact of Free Association Act of 1985 (48 U.S.C. 1681 note), the Trusteeship Agreement for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Compact of Free Association between the United States and Palau, approved by the Joint Resolution entitled 'Joint Resolution to approve the "Compact of Free Association" between the United States and Government of Palau, and for other purposes'

(48 U.S.C. 1681 note). The goal of the program shall be to establish historic and cultural preservation programs that meet the unique needs of each Micronesian State so that at the termination of the compacts the programs shall be firmly established. The Secretary may waive or modify the requirements of this section to conform to the cultural setting of those nations.

(B) The amounts to be made available to the Micronesian States shall be allocated by the Secretary on the basis of needs as determined by the Secretary. Matching funds may be waived or modified.

(f) No part of any grant made under this section may be used to compensate any person intervening in any proceeding under this Act.

(g) In consultation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, the Secretary shall promulgate guidelines for Federal agency responsibilities under section 110 of this title.

(h) Within one year after the date of enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980, the Secretary shall establish, in consultation with the Secretaries of Agriculture and Defense, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Administrator of the General Services Administration, professional standards for the preservation of historic properties in Federal ownership or control.

(i) The Secretary shall develop and make available to Federal agencies, State and local governments, private organizations and individuals, and other nations and international organizations pursuant to the World Heritage Convention, training in, and information concerning professional methods and techniques for the preservation of historic properties and for the administration of the historic preservation program at the Federal, State, and local level. The Secretary shall also develop mechanisms to provide information concerning historic preservation to the general public including students.

(j) (1) The Secretary shall, in consultation with the Council and other appropriate Federal, tribal, Native Hawaiian, and non-Federal organizations, develop and implement a comprehensive preservation education and training program.

(2) The education and training program described in paragraph (1) shall include-

(A) new standards and increased preservation training opportunities for Federal workers involved in preservation-related functions

(B) increased preservation training opportunities for other Federal, State, tribal and local government workers, and students

(C) technical or financial assistance, or both, to historically black colleges and universities, to tribal colleges, and to colleges with a high enrollment of Native Americans or Native Hawaiians, to establish preservation training and degree programs

(D) coordination of the following activities, where appropriate, with the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training-

(i) distribution of information on preservation technologies

(ii) provision of training and skill development in trades, crafts, and disciplines related to historic preservation in Federal training and development programs and

(iii) support for research, analysis, conservation, curation, interpretation, and display related to preservation.

(a) No grant may be made under this Act-

(1) unless application therefore is submitted to the Secretary in accordance with regulations and procedures prescribed by him

(2) unless the application is in accordance with the comprehensive statewide historic preservation plan which has been approved by the Secretary after considering its relationship to the comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation plan prepared pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (78 Stat. 897)

(3) for more than 60 percent of the aggregate costs of carrying out projects and programs under the administrative control of the State Historic Preservation Officer as specified in section 101(b)(3) in any one fiscal year

(4) unless the grantee has agreed to make such reports, in such form and containing such information as the Secretary may from time to time require

(5) unless the grantee has agreed to assume, after completion of the project, the total cost of the continued maintenance, repair, and administration of the property in a manner satisfactory to the Secretary and

(6) until the grantee has complied with such further terms and conditions as the Secretary may deem necessary or advisable.

Except as permitted by other law, the State share of the costs referred to in paragraph (3) shall be contributed by non-Federal sources.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no grant made pursuant to this Act shall be treated as taxable income for purposes of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(b) The Secretary may in his discretion waive the requirements of subsection (a), paragraphs (2) and (5) of this section for any grant under this Act to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States.

(c) No State shall be permitted to utilize the value of real property obtained before the date of approval of this Act in meeting the remaining cost of a project for which a grant is made under this Act.

(d) The Secretary shall make funding available to individual States and the National Trust for Historic Preservation as soon as practicable after execution of a grant agreement. For purposes of administration, grants to individual States and the National Trust each shall be considered to be one grant and shall be administered by the National Park Service as such.

(e) The total administrative costs, direct and indirect, charged for carrying out State projects and programs may not exceed 25 percent of the aggregate costs except in the case of grants under section 101(e)(6).

Section 103 (16 U.S.C. 470c)

(a) The amounts appropriated and made available for grants to the States for the purposes of this Act shall be apportioned among the States by the Secretary on the basis of needs as determined by him.

(b) The amounts appropriated and made available for grants to the States for projects and programs under this Act for each fiscal year shall be apportioned among the States as the Secretary determines to be appropriate. The Secretary shall notify each State of its apportionment under this subsection within thirty days following the date of enactment of legislation appropriating funds under this Act. Any amount of any apportionment that has not been paid or obligated by the Secretary during the fiscal year in which such notification is given and for two fiscal years thereafter, shall be reapportioned by the Secretary in accordance with this subsection. The Secretary shall analyze and revise as necessary the method of apportionment. Such method and any revision thereof shall be published by the Secretary in the Federal Register.

(c) A minimum of 10 per centum of the annual apportionment distributed by the Secretary to each State for the purposes of carrying out this Act shall be transferred by the State, pursuant to the requirements of this Act, to local governments which are certified under section 101 (c) for historic preservation projects or programs of such local governments. In any year in which the total annual apportionment to the States exceeds $65,000,000, one half of the excess shall also be transferred by the States to local governments certified pursuant to section 101 (c).

(d) The Secretary shall establish guidelines for the use and distribution of funds under subsection (c) to insure that no local government receives a disproportionate share of the funds available, and may include a maximum or minimum limitation on the amount of funds distributed to any single local government. The guidelines shall not limit the ability of any State to distribute more than 10 per centum of its annual apportionment under subsection (c), nor shall the Secretary require any State to exceed the 10 per centum minimum distribution to local governments.

Section 104 (16 U.S.C. 470d)

(a) The Secretary shall establish and maintain a program by which he may, upon application of a private lender, insure loans (including loans made in accordance with a mortgage) made by such lender to finance any project for the preservation of a property included on the National Register.

(b) A loan may be insured under this section only if-

(1) the loan is made by a private lender approved by the Secretary as financially sound and able to service the loan properly

(2) the amount of the loan, and interest rate charged with respect to the loan, do not exceed such amount, and such a rate, as is established by the Secretary, by rule

(3) the Secretary has consulted the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer concerning the preservation of the historic property

(4) the Secretary has determined that the loan is adequately secured and there is reasonable assurance of repayment

(5) the repayment period of the loan does not exceed the lesser of forty years or the expected life of the asset financed

(6) the amount insured with respect to such loan does not exceed 90 per centum of the loss sustained by the lender with respect to the loan and

(7) the loan, the borrower, and the historic property to be preserved meet other terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary, by rule, especially terms and conditions relating to the nature and quality of the preservation work.

The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of the Treasury regarding the interest rate of loans insured under this section.

(c) The aggregate unpaid principal balance of loans insured under this section and outstanding at any one time may not exceed the amount which has been covered into the Historic Preservation Fund pursuant to section 108 and subsection (g) and (i) of this section, as in effect on the date of the enactment of the Act but which has not been appropriated for any purpose.

(d) Any contract of insurance executed by the Secretary under this section may be assignable, shall be an obligation supported by the full faith and credit of the United States, and shall be incontestable except for fraud or misrepresentation of which the holder had actual knowledge at the time it became a holder.

(e) The Secretary shall specify, by rule and in each contract entered into under this section, the conditions and method of payment to a private lender as a result of losses incurred by the lender on any loan insured under this section.

(f) In entering into any contract to insure a loan under this section, the Secretary shall take steps to assure adequate protection of the financial interests of the Federal Government. The Secretary may-

(1) in connection with any foreclosure proceeding, obtain, on behalf of the Federal Government, the property securing a loan insured under this title and

(2) operate or lease such property for such period as may be necessary to protect the interest of the Federal Government and to carry out subsection (g).

(g) (1) In any case in which a historic property is obtained pursuant to subsection (f), the Secretary shall attempt to convey such property to any governmental or nongovernmental entity under such conditions as will ensure the property's continued preservation and use except that if, after a reasonable time, the Secretary, in consultation with the Advisory

Council on Historic Preservation, determines that there is no feasible and prudent means to convey such property and to ensure its continued preservation and use, then the Secretary may convey the property at the fair market value of its interest in such property to any entity without restriction.

(2) Any funds obtained by the Secretary in connection with the conveyance of any property pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be covered into the historic preservation fund, in addition to the amounts covered into such fund pursuant to section 108 and subsection (i) of this section, and shall remain available in such fund until appropriated by the Congress to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(h) The Secretary may assess appropriate and reasonable fees in connection with insuring loans under this section. Any such fees shall be covered into the Historic Preservation Fund, in addition to the amounts covered into such fund pursuant to section 108 and subsection (g) of this section, and shall remain available in such fund until appropriated by the Congress to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(i) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any loan insured under this section shall be treated as non-Federal funds for the purposes of satisfying any requirement of any other provision of law under which Federal funds to be used for any project or activity are conditioned upon the use of non-Federal funds by the recipient for payment of any portion of the costs of such project or activity.

(j) Effective after the fiscal year 1981 there are authorized to be appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to cover payments incurred pursuant to subsection (e).

(k) No debt obligation which is made or committed to be made, or which is insured or committed to be insured, by the Secretary under this section shall be eligible for purchase by, or commitment to purchase by, or sale or issuance to, the Federal Financing Bank.

Section 105 (16 U.S.C. 470e)

The beneficiary of assistance under this Act shall keep such records as the Secretary shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the disposition by the beneficiary of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with which such assistance is given or used, and the amount and nature of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.

The head of any Federal agency having direct or indirect jurisdiction over a proposed Federal or federally assisted undertaking in any State and the head of any Federal department or independent agency having authority to license any undertaking shall, prior to the approval of the expenditure of any Federal funds on the undertaking or prior to the issuance of any license, as the case may be, take into account the effect of the undertaking on any district, site, building, structure, or object that is included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. The head of any such Federal agency shall afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation established under Title II of this Act a reasonable opportunity to comment with regard to such undertaking.

Section 107 (16 U.S.C. 470g)

Nothing in this Act shall be construed to be applicable to the White House and its grounds, the Supreme Court building and its grounds, or the United States Capitol and its related buildings and grounds.

Section 108 (16 U.S.C. 470h-2)

To carry out the provisions of this Act, there is hereby established the Historic Preservation Fund (hereafter referred to as the "fund") in the Treasury of the United States. There shall be covered into such fund $24,400,000 for fiscal year 1977, $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1978, $100,000,000 for fiscal year 1979, $150,000,000 for fiscal year 1980, $150,000,000 for fiscal year 1981, and $150,000,000 for each of fiscal years 1982 through 1997, from revenues due and payable to the United States under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (67 Stat. 462, 469) as amended (43 U.S.C. 338) and/or under the Act of June 4, 1920 (41 Stat. 813) as amended (30 U.S.C. 191), notwithstanding any provision of law that such proceeds shall be credited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury. Such moneys shall be used only to carry our the purposes of this Act and shall be available for expenditure only when appropriated by the Congress. Any moneys not appropriated shall remain available in the fund until appropriated for said purposes: Provided, that appropriations made pursuant to this paragraph may be made without fiscal year limitation.

Section 109 (16 U.S.C. 470h-1)

(a) In furtherance of the purposes of sections of this Act, the Secretary may accept the donation of funds which may be expended by him for projects to acquire, restore, preserve, or recover data from any district, building, structure, site, or object which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places established pursuant to section 101 of this Act, so long as the project is owned by a State, any unit of local government, or any nonprofit entity.

(b) In expending said funds, the Secretary shall give due consideration to the following factors: the national significance of the project its historical value to the community the imminence of its destruction or loss and the expressed intentions of the donor. Funds expended under this subsection

shall be made available without regard to the matching requirements established by section 102 of this Act, but the recipient of such funds shall be permitted to utilize them to match any grants from the Historic Preservation Fund established by section 108 of this Act.

(c) The Secretary is hereby authorized to transfer unobligated funds previously donated to the Secretary for purposes of the National Park Service, with the consent of the donor, and any funds so transferred shall be used or expended in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

Section 110 (16 U.S.C. 470h-2)

(a) (1) The heads of all Federal agencies shall assume responsibility for the preservation of historic properties which are owned or controlled by such agency. Prior to acquiring, constructing, or leasing buildings for purposes of carrying out agency responsibilities, each Federal agency shall use, to the maximum extent feasible, historic properties available to the agency. Each agency shall undertake, consistent with the preservation of such properties and the mission of the agency and the professional standards established pursuant to section 101(g), any preservation, as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(2) Each Federal agency shall establish (unless exempted pursuant to Section 214), in consultation with the Secretary, a preservation program for the identification, evaluation, and nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, and protection of historic properties. Such program shall ensure-

(A) that historic properties under the jurisdiction or control of the agency, are identified, evaluated, and nominated to the National Register

(B) that such properties under the jurisdiction or control of the agency as are listed in or may be eligible for the National Register are managed and maintained in a way that considers the preservation of their historic, archaeological, architectural, and cultural values in compliance with section 106 and gives special consideration to the preservation of such values in the case of properties designated as having National significance

(C) that the preservation of properties not under the jurisdiction or control of the agency, but subject to be potentially affected by agency actions are given full consideration in planning

(D) that the agency's preservation-related activities are carried out in consultation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian

organizations carrying out historic preservation planning activities, and with the private sector and

(E) that the agency's procedures for compliance with section 106-

(i) are consistent with regulations issued by the Council pursuant to section 211

(ii) provide a process for the identification and evaluation of historic properties for listing in the National Register and the development and implementation of agreements, in consultation with State Historic Preservation Officers, local governments, Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and the interested public, as appropriate, regarding the means by which adverse effects on such properties will be considered and

(iii) provide for the disposition of Native American cultural items from Federal or tribal land in a manner consistent with section 3(c) of the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (25 U.S.C. 3002(c)).

(b) Each Federal agency shall initiate measures to assure that where, as a result of Federal action or assistance carried out by such agency, an historic property is to be substantially altered or demolished, timely steps are taken to make or have made appropriate records, and that such records then be deposited, in accordance with section 101(a), in the Library of Congress or with such other appropriate agency as may be designated by the Secretary, for future use and reference.

(c) The head of each Federal agency shall, unless exempted under section 214, designate a qualified official to be known as the agency's "preservation officer" who shall be responsible for coordinating that agency's activities under this Act. Each Preservation Officer may, in order to be considered qualified, satisfactorily complete an appropriate training program established by the Secretary under section 101(h).

(d) Consistent with the agency's mission and mandates, all Federal agencies shall carry out agency programs and projects (including those under which any Federal assistance is provided or any Federal license, permit, or other approval is required) in accordance with the purposes of this Act and, give consideration to programs and projects which will further the purposes of this Act.

(e) The Secretary shall review and approve the plans of transferees of surplus federally owned historic properties not later than ninety days after his receipt of such plans to ensure that the prehistorical, historical, architectural, or culturally significant values will be preserved or enhanced.

(f) Prior to the approval of any Federal undertaking which may directly and adversely affect any National Historic Landmark, the head of the responsible Federal agency shall, to the maximum extent possible, undertake such planning and actions as may be necessary to minimize harm to such landmark, and shall afford the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation a reasonable opportunity to comment on the undertaking.

(g) Each Federal agency may include the costs of preservation activities of such agency under this Act as eligible project costs in all undertakings of such agency or assisted by such agency. The eligible

project costs may also include amounts paid by a Federal agency to any State to be used in carrying out such preservation responsibilities of the Federal agency under this Act, and reasonable costs may be charged to Federal licensees and permittees as a condition to the issuance of such license or permit.

(h) The Secretary shall establish an annual preservation awards program under which he may make monetary awards in amounts not to exceed $1,000 and provide citations for special achievements to officers and employees of Federal, State, and certified local governments in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the preservation of historic resources. Such program may include the issuance of annual awards by the president of the United States to any citizen of the United States recommended for such award by the Secretary.

(i) Nothing in this Act shall be construed to require the preparation of an environmental impact statement where such a statement would not otherwise be required under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, and nothing is this Act shall be construed to provide any exemption from any requirement respecting the preparation of such a statement under such Act.

(j) The Secretary shall promulgate regulations under which the requirements of this section may be waived in whole or in part in the event of a major natural disaster or an imminent threat to the national security.

(k) Each Federal agency shall ensure that the agency will not grant a loan, loan guarantee, permit, license, or other assistance to an applicant who, with intent to avoid the requirements of section 106, has intentionally significantly adversely affected a historic property to which the grant would relate, or having legal power to prevent it, allowed such significant adverse effect to occur, unless the agency, after consultation with the Council, determines that circumstances justify granting such assistance despite the adverse effect created or permitted by the applicant.

(l) With respect to any undertaking subject to section 106 which adversely affects any property included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register, and for which a Federal agency has not entered into an agreement with the Council, the head of such agency shall document any decision made pursuant to section 106. The head of such agency may not delegate his or her responsibilities pursuant to such section. Where a section 106 memorandum of agreement has been executed with respect to an undertaking, such memorandum shall govern the undertaking and all of its parts.

Section 111 (16 U.S.C. 470h-3)

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any Federal agency after consultation with the Council, shall, to the extent practicable, establish and implement alternatives for historic properties, including adaptive use, that are not needed for current or projected agency purposes, and may lease an historic property owned by the agency to any person or organization, or exchange any property owned by the agency with

comparable historic property, if the agency head determines that the lease or exchange will adequately insure the preservation of the historic property.

(b) The proceeds of any lease under subsection (a) may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, be retained by the agency entering into such lease and used to defray the costs of administration, maintenance, repair, and related expenses incurred by the agency with respect to such property or other properties which are on the National Register which are owned by, or are under the jurisdiction or control of, such agency. Any surplus proceeds from such leases shall be deposited into the Treasury of the United States at the end of the second fiscal year following the fiscal year in which such proceeds were received.

(c) The head of any Federal agency having responsibility for the management of any historic property may, after consultation with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, enter into contracts for the management of such property. Any such contract shall contain such terms and conditions as the head of such agency deems necessary or appropriate to protect the interests of the United States and insure adequate preservation of historic property.

(a) In General.-Each Federal agency that is responsible for the protection of historic resources, including archaeological resources pursuant to this Act or any other law shall ensure each of the following-

(1) (A) All actions taken by employees or contractors of such agency shall meet professional standards under regulations developed by the Secretary in consultation with the Council, other affected agencies, and the appropriate professional societies of the disciplines involved, specifically archaeology, architecture, conservation, history, landscape architecture, and planning.

(B) Agency personnel or contractors responsible for historic resources shall meet qualification standards established by the Office of Personnel Management in consultation with the Secretary and appropriate professional societies of the disciplines involved. The Office of Personnel Management shall revise qualification standards within 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act for the disciplines involved, specifically archaeology, architecture, conservation, curation, history, landscape architecture, and planning. Such standards shall consider the particular skills and expertise needed for the preservation of historic resources and shall be equivalent requirements for the disciplines involved.

(2) Records and other data, including data produced by historical research and archaeological surveys and excavations are permanently maintained in appropriate data bases and made available to potential users pursuant to such regulations as the Secretary shall promulgate.

(b) Guidelines.-In order to promote the preservation of historic resources on properties eligible for listing in the National register, the Secretary shall, in consultation with the Council, promulgate

guidelines to ensure that Federal, State, and tribal historic preservation programs subject to this Act include plans to-

(1) provide information to the owners of properties containing historic (including architectural, curatorial, and archaeological) resources with demonstrated or likely research significance, about the need for protection of such resources, and the available means of protection

(2) encourage owners to preserve such resources intact and in place and offer the owners of such resources information on the tax and grant assistance available for the donation of the resources or of a preservation easement of the resources

(3) encourage the protection of Native American cultural items (within the meaning of section 2 (3) and (9) of the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act

(25 U.S.C. 3001 (3) and (9)) and of properties of religious or cultural importance to Indian tribes, Native Hawaiians, or other Native American groups and

(4) encourage owners who are undertaking archaeological excavations to-

(A) conduct excavations and analyses that meet standards for federally-sponsored excavations established by the Secretary

(B) donate or lend artifacts of research significance to an appropriate research institution

(C) allow access to artifacts for research purposes and

(D) prior to excavating or disposing of a Native American cultural item in which an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization may have an interest under section 3(a)(2) (B) or (C) of the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act

(25 U.S.C. 3002(a)(2) (B) and (C)), given notice to and consult with such Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization.

(a) Study.-In order to help control illegal interstate and international traffic in antiquities, including archaeological, curatorial, and architectural objects, and historical documents of all kinds, the Secretary shall study and report on the suitability and feasibility of alternatives for controlling illegal interstate and international traffic in antiquities.

(b) Consultation.-In conducting the study described in subsection (a) the Secretary shall consult with the Council and other Federal agencies that conduct, cause to be conducted, or permit archaeological surveys or excavations or that have responsibilities for other kinds of antiquities and with State Historic Preservation Officers, archaeological, architectural, historical, conservation, and curatorial organizations, Indian tribes, Native Hawaiian organizations, and other Native American organizations, international organizations and other interested persons.

(c) Report.-Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report detailing the Secretary's findings and recommendations from the study described in subsection (a).

(d) Authorization.-There are authorized to be appropriated not more than $500,000 for the study described in subsection (a), such sums to remain available until expended.

Section 201 (16 U.S.C. 470i)

(a) There is established as an independent agency of the United States Government an Advisory Council on Historic Preservation which shall be composed of the following members:

(1) a Chairman appointed by the President selected from the general public

(2) the Secretary of the Interior

(3) the Architect of the Capitol

(4) the Secretary of Agriculture and the heads of four other agencies of the United States (other than the Department of the Interior), the activities of which affect historic preservation, appointed by the President

(5) one Governor appointed by the President

(6) one mayor appointed by the President

(7) the President of the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers

(8) the Chairman of the National Trust for Historic Preservation

(9) four experts in the field of historic preservation appointed by the President from the disciplines of architecture, history, archaeology, and other appropriate disciplines

(10) three at-large members from the general public, appointed by the President and

(11) one member of an Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization who represents the interests of the tribe or organization of which he or she is a member, appointed by the President.

(b) Each member of the Council specified in paragraphs (2) through (8) (other than (5) and (6)) may designate another officer of his department, agency, or organization to serve on the Council in his stead, except that, in the case of paragraphs (2) and (4), no such officer other than an Assistant Secretary or an officer having major department-wide or agency-wide responsibilities may be so designated.

(c) Each member of the Council appointed under paragraph (1), and under paragraphs (9) and (10) of subsection (a) shall serve for a term of four years from the expiration of his predecessor's term except that the members first appointed under that paragraph shall serve for terms of one to four years, as designated by the President at the time of appointment, in such manner as to insure that the terms of not more than two of them will expire in any one year. The members appointed under paragraphs (5) and (6) shall serve for the term of their elected office but not in excess of four years. An appointed member whose term has expired shall serve until that member's successor has been appointed.

(d) A vacancy in the Council shall not affect its powers, but shall be filled not later than sixty days after such vacancy commences, in the same manner as the original appointment (and for the balance of any unexpired terms). The members of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation appointed by the President under this Act as in effect on the day before the enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980 shall remain in office until all members of the Council, as specified in this section, have been appointed. The members first appointed under this section shall be appointed not later than one hundred and eighty days after the enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980.

(e) The President shall designate a Vice Chairman, from the members appointed under paragraphs (5),(6),(9), or (10). The Vice Chairman may act in place of the Chairman during the absence or disability of the Chairman or when the office is vacant.

(f) Nine members of the Council shall constitute a quorum.

Section 202 (16 U.S.C. 470j)

(1) advise the President and the Congress on matters relating to historic preservation, recommend measures to coordinate activities of Federal, State, and local agencies and private institutions and individuals relating to historic preservation and advise on the dissemination of information pertaining to such activities

(2) encourage, in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation and appropriate private agencies, public interest and participation in historic preservation

(3) recommend the conduct of studies in such areas as the adequacy of legislative and administrative statutes and regulations pertaining to historic preservation activities of State and local governments and the effects of tax policies at all levels of government on historic preservation

(4) advise as to guidelines for the assistance of State and local governments in drafting legislation relating to historic preservation

(5) encourage, in cooperation with appropriate public and private agencies and institutions, training and education in the field of historic preservation

(6) review the policies and programs of Federal agencies and recommend to such agencies methods to improve the effectiveness, coordination, and consistency of those policies and programs with the policies and programs carried out under this Act and,

(7) inform and educate Federal agencies, State and local governments, Indian tribes, other nations and international organizations and private groups and individuals as to the Council's authorized activities.

(b) The Council shall submit annually a comprehensive report of its activities and the results of its studies to the President and the Congress and shall from time to time submit such additional and special reports as it deems advisable. Each report shall propose such legislative enactments and other actions as, in the judgment of the Council, are necessary and appropriate to carry out its

recommendations and shall provide the Council's assessment of current and emerging problems in the field of historic preservation and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the programs of Federal agencies, State and local governments, and the private sector in carrying out the purposes of this Act.

Section 203 (16 U.S.C. 470k)

The Council is authorized to secure directly from any department, bureau, agency, board, commission, office, independent establishment or instrumentality of the executive branch of the Federal Government information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics for the purpose of this title and each such department or instrumentality is authorized to furnish such information, suggestions, estimates, and statistics to the extent permitted by law and within available funds.

Section 204 (16 U.S.C. 470l)

The members of the Council specified in paragraphs (2),(3), and (4) of section 201 (a) shall serve without additional compensation. The other members of the Council shall receive $100 per diem when engaged in the performance of the duties of the Council. All members of the Council shall receive reimbursement for necessary traveling and subsistence expenses incurred by them in the performance of the duties of the Council.

Section 205 (16 U.S.C. 470m)

(a) There shall be an Executive Director of the Council who shall be appointed in the competitive service by the Chairman with the concurrence of the Council. The Executive Director shall report directly to the Council and perform such functions and duties as the Council may prescribe.

(b) The Council shall have a General Counsel, who shall be appointed by the Executive Director. The General Counsel shall report directly to the Executive Director and serve as the Council's legal advisor. The Executive Director shall appoint such other attorneys as may be necessary to assist the General Counsel, represent the Council in courts of law whenever appropriate, including enforcement of agreements with Federal agencies to which the Council is a party, assist the Department of Justice in handling litigation concerning the Council in courts of law, and perform such other legal duties and functions as the Executive Director and the Council may direct.

(c) The Executive Director of the Council may appoint and fix the compensation of such officers and employees in the competitive service as are necessary to perform the functions of the Council at rates not to exceed that now or hereafter prescribed for the highest rate for grade 15 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, United States Code: Provided, however, That the Executive Director, with the concurrence of the Chairman, may appoint and fix the compensation of not to exceed five employees in the competitive service at rates not to exceed that now or hereafter prescribed for the highest rate of grade 17 of the General Schedule under section 5332 of Title 5, United States Code.

(d) The Executive Director shall have power to appoint and fix the compensation of such additional personnel as may be necessary to carry out its duties, without regard to the provisions of the civil service laws and the Classification Act of 1949.

(e) The Executive Director of the Council is authorized to procure expert and consultant services in accordance with the provisions of section 3109 of title 5, United States Code.

(f) Financial and administrative services (including those related to budgeting, accounting, financial reporting, personnel and procurement) shall be provided the Council by the Department of the Interior, for which payments shall be made in advance, or by reimbursement, from funds of the Council in such amounts as may be agreed upon by the Chairman of the Council and the Secretary of the Interior Provided, That the regulations of the Department of the Interior for the collection of indebtedness of personnel resulting from erroneous payments (5 U.S.C. 46e) shall apply to the collection of erroneous payments made to or on behalf of a Council employee, and regulations of said Secretary for the administrative control of funds (31 U.S.C. 665 (g)) shall apply to appropriations of the Council: And provided further, That the Council shall not be required to prescribe such regulations.

(g) The members of the Council specified in paragraphs (2) through (4) of section 201(a) shall provide the Council, with or without reimbursement as may be agreed upon by the Chairman and the members, with such funds, personnel, facilities, and services under their jurisdiction and control as may be needed by the Council to carry out its duties, to the extent that such funds, personnel, facilities, and services are requested by the Council and are otherwise available for that purpose. To the extent of available appropriations, the Council may obtain, by purchase, rental, donation, or otherwise, such additional property, facilities, and services as may be needed to carry out its duties and may also receive donations of moneys for such purpose, and the Executive Director is authorized, in his discretion, to accept, hold, use, expend, and administer the same for the purposes of this Act.

Section 206 (16 U.S.C. 470n)

(a) The participation of the United States as a member of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property is hereby authorized.

(b) The Council shall recommend to the Secretary of State, after consultation with the Smithsonian Institution and other public and private organizations concerned with the technical problems of preservation, the members of the official delegation which will participate in the activities of the Centre on behalf of the United States. The Secretary of State shall appoint the members of the official delegation from the persons recommended to him by the Council.

(c) For the purposes of this section there is authorized to be appropriated an amount equal to the assessment for United States membership in the Centre for fiscal years 1979, 1980, 1981, and 1982: Provided, That no appropriation is authorized and no payment shall be made to the Centre in excess of 25 per centum of the total annual assessment of such organization. Authorization for payment of such assessment shall begin in fiscal year 1981, but shall include earlier costs.

Section 207 (16 U.S.C. 470o)

So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds employed, held, used, programmed, or available or to be made available by the Department of the Interior in connection with the functions of the Council, as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine, shall be transferred from the Department to the Council within 60 days of the effective date of this Act.

Section 208 (16 U.S.C. 470p)

Any employee in the competitive service of the United States transferred to the Council under the provisions of this section shall retain all rights, benefits, and privileges pertaining thereto held prior to such transfer.

Section 209 (16 U.S.C. 470q)

The Council is exempt from the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (86 Stat. 770), and the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act (80 Stat. 381) shall govern the operations of the Council.

Section 210 (16 U.S.C. 470r)

No officer or agency of the United States shall have any authority to require the Council to submit its legislative recommendations, or testimony, or comments on legislation to any officer or agency of the United States for approval, comments, or review, prior to the submission of such recommendations, testimony, or comments to the Congress. In instances in which the Council voluntarily seeks to obtain the comments or review of any officer or agency of the United States, the Council shall include a description of such actions in its legislative recommendations, testimony, or comments on legislation which it transmits to the Congress.

Section 211 (16 U.S.C. 470s)

The Council is authorized to promulgate such rules and regulations as it deems necessary to govern the implementation of section 106 of this Act in its entirety. The Council shall, by regulation, establish such procedures as may be necessary to provide for participation by local governments in proceedings and other actions taken by the Council with respect to undertakings referred to in section 106 which affect such local governments.

Section 212 (16 U.S.C. 470t)

(a) The Council shall submit its budget annually as a related agency of the Department of the Interior. To carry out the provisions of this title, there is authorized to be appropriated not more than $2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 1985 through 1989. There are authorized to be appropriated for purposes of this title not to exceed $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1993 through 1996.

(b) Whenever the Council submits any budget estimate or request to the President or the Office of Management and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit copies of that estimate or request to the House and Senate Appropriations Committees and the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs and the Senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

Section 213 (16 U.S.C. 470u)

To assist the Council in discharging its responsibilities under this Act, the Secretary at the request of the Chairman, shall provide a report to the Council detailing the significance of any historic property, describing the effects of any proposed undertaking on the affected property, and recommending measures to avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects.

Section 214 (16 U.S.C. 470v)

The Council, with the concurrence of the Secretary, shall promulgate regulations or guidelines, as appropriate, under which Federal programs or undertakings may be exempted from any or all of the requirements of this Act when such exemption is determined to be consistent with the purposes of this Act, taking into consideration the magnitude of the exempted undertaking or program and the likelihood of impairment of historic properties.

Section 301 (16 U.S.C. 470w)

As used in this Act, the term-

(1) "Agency" means agency as such term is defined in section 551 of title 5, United States Code.

(2) "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and, upon termination of the Trusteeship Agreement for the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Republic of Palau.

(3) "Local government" means a city, county, parish, township, municipality, or borough, or any other general purpose political subdivision of any State.

(4) "Indian tribe" or "tribe" means an Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including a Native village, Regional Corporation or Village Corporation, as those terms are defined in section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

(43 U.S.C. 1602), which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(5) "Historic property" or "historic resource" means any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object included in, or eligible for inclusion on the National Register, including artifacts, records, and material remains related to such a property or resource.

(6) "National Register" or "Register" means the National Register of Historic Places established under section 101.

(7) "Undertaking" means a project, activity, or program funded in whole or in part under the direct or indirect jurisdiction of a Federal agency, including-

(A) those carried out by or on behalf of the agency

(B) those carried out with Federal financial assistance

(C) those requiring a Federal permit, license, or approval and

(D) those subject to State or local regulation administered pursuant to a delegation or approval by a Federal agency.

(8) "Preservation" or "historic preservation" includes identification, evaluation, recordation, documentation, curation, acquisition, protection, management, rehabilitation, restoration, stabilization, maintenance, research, interpretation, conservation, and education and training regarding the foregoing activities or any combination of the foregoing activities.

(9) "Cultural park" means a definable area which is distinguished by historic resources and land related to such resources and which constitutes an interpretive, educational, and recreational resource for the public at large.

(10) "Historic conservation district" means an area which contains-

(B) buildings having similar or related architectural characteristics,

(C) cultural cohesiveness, or

(D) any combination of the foregoing.

(11) "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Interior acting through the Director of the National Park Service except where otherwise specified.

(12) "State Historic Preservation Review Board" means a board, council, commission, or other similar collegial body established as provided in section 101 (b)(1)(B)-

(A) the members of which are appointed by the State Historic Preservation Officer (unless otherwise provided for by State law),

(B) a majority of the members of which are professionals qualified in the following and related disciplines: history, prehistoric and historic archaeology, architectural history, architecture, folklore, cultural anthropology, curation, conservation, and landscape architecture and

(C) which has the authority to-

(i) review National Register nominations and appeals from nominations

(ii) review appropriate documentation submitted in conjunction with the Historic Preservation Fund

(iii) provide general advice and guidance to the State Historic Preservation Officer, and

(iv) perform such other duties as may be appropriate.

(13) "Historic preservation review commission" means a board, council, commission, or other similar collegial body which is established by State or local legislation as provided in section 101 (c)(1)(B), and the members of which are appointed, unless otherwise provided by State or local legislation, by the chief elected official of the jurisdiction concerned from among-

(A) professionals in the disciplines of architecture, history, architectural history, planning, prehistoric and historic archaeology, folklore, cultural anthropology, curation, conservation, and landscape architecture or related disciplines, to the extent such professionals are available in the community concerned, and

(B) such other persons as have demonstrated special interest, experience, or knowledge in history, architecture, or related disciplines and as will provide for an adequate and qualified commission.

(A) all lands within the exterior boundaries of any Indian reservation and

(B) all dependent Indian communities.

(15) "Certified local government" means a local government whose local historic preservation program has been certified pursuant to section 101(c).

(16) "Council" means the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation established by section 201.

(17) "Native Hawaiian" means any individual who is a descendant of the aboriginal people who, prior to 1778, occupied and exercised sovereignty in the area that now constitutes the State of Hawaii.

(18) "Native Hawaiian organization" means any organization which-

(A) serves and represents the interests of Native Hawaiians

(B) has as a primary and stated purpose the provision of services to Native Hawaiians and

(C) has demonstrated expertise in aspects of historic preservation that are culturally significant to Native Hawaiians.

The term includes, but is not limited to, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs of the State of Hawaii and Hui Malama I Na Kapuna O Hawai'i Nei, an organization incorporated under the laws of the State of Hawaii.

Section 302 (16 U.S.C. 470w-1)

Where appropriate, each Federal agency is authorized to expend funds appropriated for its authorized programs for the purposes of activities carried out pursuant to this Act, except to the extent appropriations legislation expressly provides otherwise.

Section 303 (16 U.S.C. 470w-2)

(a) The Secretary is authorized to accept donations and bequests of money and personal property for the purposes of this Act and shall hold, use, expend, and administer the same for such purposes.

(b) The Secretary is authorized to accept gifts or donations of less than fee interests in any historic property where the acceptance of such interests will facilitate the conservation or preservation of such properties. Nothing in this section or in any provision of this Act shall be construed to affect or impair any other authority of the Secretary under other provision of law to accept or acquire any property for conservation or preservation or for any other purpose.

Section 304 (16 U.S.C. 4702-3)

(a) Authority to Withhold from Disclosure.-The head of a Federal agency or other public official receiving grant assistance pursuant to this Act, after consultation with the Secretary, shall withhold from disclosure to the public, information about the location, character, or ownership of a historic resource if the Secretary and the agency determine that disclosure may-

(1) cause a significant invasion of privacy

(2) risk harm to the historic resource or

(3) impede the use of a traditional religious site by practitioners.

(b) Access Determination.-When the head of a Federal agency or other public official has determined that information should be withheld from the public pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary, in consultation with such Federal agency head or official, shall determine who may have access to the information for the purpose of carrying out this Act.

(c) Consultation with Council.-When the information in question has been developed in the course of an agency's compliance with section 106 or 110(f), the Secretary shall consult with the Council in reaching determinations under subsections (a) and (b).

Section 305 (16 U.S.C. 470w-4)

In any civil action brought in any United States district court by any interested person to enforce the provisions of this Act, if such person substantially prevails in such action, the court may award attorneys' fees, expert witness fees, and other costs of participating in such action, as the court deems reasonable.

Section 306 (16 U.S.C. 470w-5)

(a) In order to provide a national center to commemorate and encourage the building arts and to preserve and maintain a nationally significant building which exemplifies the great achievements of the building arts in the United States, the Secretary and the Administrator of the General Services Administration are authorized and directed to enter into a cooperative agreement with the Committee for a National Museum of the Building Arts, Incorporated, a nonprofit corporation organized and existing under the laws of the District of Columbia, or its successor, for the operation of a National Museum for the Building Arts in the Federal Building located in the block bounded by Fourth Street, Fifth Street, F Street, and G Street, Northwest in Washington, District of Columbia. Such museum shall-

(1) collect and disseminate information concerning the building arts, including the establishment of a national reference center for current and historic documents, publications, and research relating to the building arts

(2) foster educational programs relating to the history, practice and contribution to society of the building arts, including promotion of imaginative educational approaches to enhance understanding and appreciation of all facets of the building arts

(3) publicly display temporary and permanent exhibits illustrating, interpreting and demonstrating the building arts

(4) sponsor or conduct research and study into the history of the building arts and their role in shaping our civilization and

(5) encourage contributions to the building arts.

(b) The cooperative agreement referred to in subsection (a) shall include provisions which-

(1) make the site available to the Committee referred to in subsection (a) without charge

(2) provide, subject to available appropriations, such maintenance, security, information, janitorial and other services as may be necessary to assure the preservation and operation of the site and

(3) prescribe reasonable terms and conditions by which the Committee can fulfill its responsibilities under this Act.

(c) The Secretary is authorized and directed to provide matching grants-in-aid to the Committee referred to in subsection (a) for its programs related to historic preservation. The Committee shall match such grants-in-aid in a manner and with such funds and services as shall be satisfactory to the Secretary, except that no more than $500,000 may be provided to the Committee in any one fiscal year.

(d) The renovation of the site shall be carried out by the Administrator with the advice of the Secretary. Such renovation shall, as far as practicable-

(1) be commenced immediately,

(2) preserve, enhance, and restore the distinctive and historically authentic architectural character of the site consistent with the needs of a national museum of the building arts and other compatible use, and

(3) retain the availability of the central court of the building, or portions thereof, for appropriate public activities.

(e) The Committee shall submit an annual report to the Secretary and the Administrator concerning its activities under this section and shall provide the Secretary and the Administrator with such other information as the Secretary may, from time to time, deem necessary or advisable.

(f) For purposes of this section, the term "building arts" includes, but shall not be limited to, all practical and scholarly aspects of prehistoric, historic, and contemporary architecture, archaeology, construction, building technology and skills, landscape architecture, preservation and conservation,

building and construction, engineering, urban and community design and renewal, city and regional planning, and related professions, skills, trades and crafts.

Section 307 (16 U.S.C. 470w-6)

(a) At least thirty days prior to publishing in the Federal Register any proposed regulation required by this Act, the Secretary shall transmit a copy of the regulation to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate. The Secretary also shall transmit to such committees a copy of any final regulation prior to its publication in the Federal Register. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no final regulation of the Secretary shall become effective prior to the expiration of thirty calendar days after it is published in the Federal Register during which either or both Houses of Congress are in session.

(b) In the case of an emergency, a final regulation of the Secretary may become effective without regard to the last sentence of subsection (a) if the Secretary notified in writing the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate setting forth the reasons why it is necessary to make the regulation effective prior to the expiration of the thirty-day period.

(c) Except as provided in subsection (b), the regulation shall not become effective if, within ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation, both Houses of Congress adopt a concurrent resolution, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That Congress disapproves the regulation promulgated by the Secretary dealing with the matter of_______, which regulation was transmitted to Congress on_______," the blank spaces therein being appropriately filled.

(d) If at the end of sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation of a regulation, no committee of either House of Congress has reported or been discharged from further consideration of a concurrent resolution disapproving the regulation, and neither House has adopted such a resolution, the regulation may go into effect immediately. If, within such sixty calendar days, such a committee has reported or been discharged form further consideration of such a resolution, the regulation may go into effect not sooner than ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress after its promulgation unless disapproved as provided for.

(e) For the purposes of this section-

(1) continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment sine die and

(2) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of sixty and ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress.

(f) Congressional inaction on or rejection of a resolution of disapproval shall not be deemed an expression of approval of such regulation.

The Congress finds and declares that, given the complexity of technical problems encountered in preserving historic properties and the lack of adequate distribution of technical information to preserve such properties, a national initiative to coordinate and promote research, distribute information, and provide training about preservation skills and technologies would be beneficial.

For the purposes of this title-

(1) The term "Board" means the National Preservation Technology and Training Board established pursuant to section 404.

(2) The term "Center" means the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training established pursuant to section 403.

(3) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Interior.

(a) Establishment.-There is hereby established within the Department of the Interior a National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. The Center shall be located at Northwestern State University of Louisiana in Nachitoches, Louisiana.

(b) Purposes.-The purposes of the Center shall be to-

(1) develop and distribute preservation and conservation skills and technologies for the identification, evaluation, conservation, and interpretation of prehistoric and historic resources

(2) develop and facilitate training for Federal, State and local resource preservation professionals, cultural resource managers, maintenance personnel, and others working in the preservation field

(3) take steps to apply preservation technology benefits from ongoing research by other agencies and institutions

(4) facilitate the transfer of preservation technology among Federal agencies, State and local governments, universities, international organizations, and the private sector and

(5) cooperate with related international organizations including, but not limited to the International Council on Monuments and Sites, the International Center for the Study of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property, and the International Council on Museums.

(c) Programs.-Such purposes shall be carried out through research, professional training, technical assistance, and programs for public awareness, and through a program of grants established under section 405.

(d) Executive Director.-The Center shall be headed by an Executive Director with demonstrated expertise in historic preservation appointed by the Secretary with advice of the Board.

(e) Assistance From Secretary.-The Secretary shall provide the Center assistance in obtaining such personnel, equipment, and facilities as may be needed by the Center to carry out its activities.

(a) Establishment.-There is established a Preservation Technology and Training Board.

(1) provide leadership, policy advice, and professional oversight to the Center

(2) advise the Secretary on priorities and the allocation of grants among the activities of the Center and

(3) submit an annual report to the President and the Congress.

(c) Membership.-The Board shall be comprised of-

(1) The Secretary, or the Secretary's designee

(2) 6 members appointed by the Secretary who shall represent appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies, State and local historic preservation commissions, and other public and international organizations, and

(3) 6 members appointed by the Secretary on the basis of outstanding professional qualifications who represent major organizations in the fields of archeology, architecture, conservation, curation, engineering, history, historic preservation, landscape architecture, planning, or preservation education.

(a) In General.-The Secretary, in consultation with the Board, shall provide preservation technology and training grants to eligible applicants with a demonstrated institutional capability and commitment to the purposes of the Center, in order to ensure an effective and efficient system of research, information distribution and skills training in all the related historic preservation fields.

(1) Grants provided under this section shall be allocated in such a fashion to reflect the diversity of the historic preservation fields and shall be geographically distributed.

(2) No grant recipient may receive more than 10 percent of the grants allocated under this section within any year.

(3) The total administrative costs, direct and indirect, charged for carrying out grants under this section may not exceed 25 percent of the aggregate costs.

(c) Eligible Applicants.-Eligible applicants may include Federal and non-Federal laboratories, accredited museums, universities, non-profit organizations offices, units, and Cooperative Park Study Units of the National Park System, State Historic Preservation Offices, tribal preservation offices, and Native Hawaiian organizations.

(d) Standards.-All such grants shall be awarded in accordance with accepted professional standards and methods, including peer review of projects.

(e) Authorization of Appropriations.-There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section such sums as may be necessary.

(a) Acceptance of Grants and Transfers.-The Center may accept-

(1) grants and donations from private individuals, groups, organizations, corporations, foundations, and other entities and

(2) transfers of funds from other Federal agencies.

(b) Contracts and Cooperative Agreements.-Subject to appropriations, the Center may enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with Federal, State, local, and tribal governments, Native Hawaiian organizations, educational institutions, and other public entities to carry out the Center's responsibilities under this title.

(c) Authorization of Appropriations.-There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the Center. Funds for the Center shall be in addition to existing National Park Service programs, centers, and offices.

In order to improve the use of existing National Park Service resources, the Secretary shall fully utilize and further develop the National Park Service preservation (including conservation) centers and regional offices. The Secretary shall improve the coordination of such centers and offices within the National Park Service, and shall, where appropriate, coordinate their activities with the Center and with other appropriate parties.

National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980, Public Law 96-515, December 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3000

This appendix contains related legislative provisions enacted in the National Historic Preservation Act Amendments of 1980 but that are not part of the National Historic Preservation Act.

Notwithstanding section 7(a) of the Act of June 27, 1960 (16 U.S.C. 469c), or any other provision of law to the contrary-

(1) identification, surveys, and evaluation carried out with respect to historic properties within project areas may be treated for purposes of any law or rule of law as planning costs of the project and not as costs of mitigation

(2) reasonable costs for identification, surveys, evaluation, and data recovery carried out with respect to historic properties within project areas may be charged to Federal licensees and permittees as a condition to the issuance of such license or permit and

(3) Federal agencies, with the concurrence of the Secretary and after notification of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate, are authorized to waive, in appropriate cases, the 1 per centum limitation contained in Section 7(a) of such Act.

Section 401 (16 U.S.C. 470a-1)

(a) The Secretary of the Interior shall direct and coordinate United States participation in the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, approved by the Senate on October 26, 1973, in cooperation with the Secretary of State, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. Whenever possible, expenditures incurred in carrying out activities in cooperation with other nations and international organizations shall be paid for in such excess currency of the country or area where the expense is incurred as may be available to the United States.

(b) The Secretary of the Interior shall periodically nominate properties he determines are of international significance to the World Heritage Committee on behalf of the United States. No property may be so nominated unless it has previously been determined to be of national significance. Each such nomination shall include evidence of such legal protections as may be necessary to ensure preservation of the property and its environment (including restrictive covenants, easements, or other forms of protection). Before making any such nomination, the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the United States House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the United States Senate.

Appendix I, Section 401, continued

(c) No non-Federal property may be nominated by the Secretary of the Interior to the world Heritage Committee for inclusion on the World Heritage List unless the owner of the property concurs in writing to such nomination.

Section 402 (16 U.S.C. 470a-2)

Prior to the approval of any Federal undertaking outside the United States which may directly and adversely affect a property which is on the World Heritage List or on the applicable country's equivalent of the National Register, the head of a Federal agency having direct or indirect jurisdiction over such undertaking shall take into account the effect of the undertaking on such property for purposes of avoiding or mitigating any adverse effects.

Section 502 (16 U.S.C. 470a note)

The Secretary, in cooperation with the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress shall, within two years after the date of the enactment of this act, submit a report to the President and the Congress on preserving and conserving the intangible elements of our cultural heritage such as arts, skills, folklife, and folkways. The report shall take into account the view of other public and private organizations, as appropriate. This report shall include recommendations for legislative and administrative actions by the Federal Government in order to preserve, conserve, and encourage the continuation of the diverse traditional prehistoric, historic, ethnic, and folk cultural traditions that underlie and are a living expression of our American heritage.

Section 503 (16 U.S.C. 470j note)

The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, in cooperation with the Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury, shall submit a report to the President and the Congress on Federal tax laws relating to historic preservation or affecting in any manner historic preservation. Such report shall include recommendations respecting amendments to such laws which would further the purposes of this Act. Such report shall be submitted within one year after the date of enactment of this Act.

Section 504 (16 U.S.C. 470h note)

The Secretary shall submit a report directly to the President and the Congress on or before June 1, 1986, reviewing the operation of the Historic Preservation Fund and the national historic preservation program since the enactment of this Act and recommending appropriate funding levels, the time period for the reauthorization for appropriations from the fund, and other appropriate legislative action to be undertaken upon the expiration of the current fund authorization.

Section 505 (40 U.S.C. 874 note)

The Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation shall review the development plan for those parts of the development area which are not under development or committed for development as of

Appendix I, Section 505, continued

the date of the enactment of this Act, to identify means by which the historic values of such parts of the development area may be preserved and enhanced to the maximum extent feasible. The foregoing review shall not be limited by the applicable provisions of the development plan in effect at the time of the review nor shall the review require any actions by the Corporation during the course of the review or during its consideration by the Congress. Within one year of the date of this act the Corporation shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report containing the findings of the review required under this section, together with the Corporation's recommendations for any legislative measures or funding necessary to carry out the purposes of this section. The report shall also include a description of those activities which the Corporation proposes to undertake to carry out the purposes of this section and the financial implications of carrying out those activities.

Section 506 (16 U.S.C. 470a note)

The Secretary shall undertake a comprehensive study and formulate recommendations for a coordinated system of cultural parks and historic conservation districts that provide for the preservation, interpretation, development, and use by public and private entities of the prehistoric, historic, architectural, cultural, and recreational resources found in definable urban areas throughout the Nation. The study shall propose alternatives concerning the management and funding of such system by public and private entities and by various levels of government. The Secretary shall submit a report of his study and recommendations to the President and the Congress within two years after the enactment of this Act.

Section 507 (16 U.S.C. 470a note)

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of the Treasury, the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, and the Administrator of the Federal Insurance Administration, shall submit a report to the President and the Congress on fire in historic properties. Such report shall include a review of Federal laws to determine any relationship between these laws and arson or fire by "suspicious origin", and to make recommendations respecting amendments to such laws should a correlation be found to exist. Such report shall include the feasiblity and necessity of establishing or developing protective measures at the Federal, State, or local level for the prevention, detection, and control of arson or fire by "suspicious origin" in historic properties. Such report shall also include recommendations regarding the Federal role in assisting the States and local governments with protecting historic properties from damage by fire. Such report shall be submitted within eighteen months after the date of enactment of this Act.

The Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Advisory Council, shall seek to ensure that historic properties preserved under the National Historic Preservation Act fully reflect the historical experience of this nation.

SEC. 4023. REQUIREMENT FOR SPECIFIC AUTHORIZATION FOR PROJECTS UNDER THE HISTORIC SITES, BUILDINGS, AND ANTIQUITIES ACT.

Section 6 of the Act entitled "An Act to provide for the preservation of historic American sites, buildings, objects, and antiquities of national significance, and for other purposes" (16 U.S.C. 461-467) is amended to read as follows:

SEC. 6. REQUIREMENT FOR SPECIFIC AUTHORIZATION FOR PROJECTS UNDER THE HISTORIC SITES, BUILDINGS, AND ANTIQUITIES ACT.

(a) In General.-Except as provided in subsection (b), notwithstanding any other provision of law, no funds appropriated or otherwise made available to the Secretary of the Interior to carry out section 2(e) or 2(f) may be obligated or expended after the date of enactment of this section-

(1) unless the appropriation of such funds has been specifically authorized by law enacted on or after the date of enactment of this section or

(2) in excess of the amount prescribed by law enacted on or after such date.

(b) Savings Provision.-Nothing in this section shall prohibit or limit the expenditure or obligation of any funds appropriated prior to January 1, 1993.

(c) Authorization of Appropriations.-Except as provided by subsection (a), there is authorized to be appropriated for carrying out the purposes of this Act such sums as the Congress may from time to time determine.

SEC. 4024. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JUNIOR, NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE AND PRESERVATION DISTRICT.

(a) Boundary Modification.-Subsection (a) of the first section of the Act entitled "An Act to establish the Martin Luther King, Junior, National Historic Site in the State of Georgia, and for other purposes" (Public Law 96-428 94 Stat. 1839), establishing the Martin

Appendix II, SEC. 4024(a), continued

Luther King, Junior, National Historic Site and Preservation District, is amended by striking "numbered NASM/SERO/20, 109-C, and dated May 1980" and inserting in lieu thereof "number 489/80,013B, and dated September 1992".

(b) Limitation on Appropriations.-Section 6 of Public Law 96-428 (94 Stat. 1842) is amended by striking ", but not to exceed $1,000,000 for development, $100,000 for local planning, and $3,500,000 for the acquisition of lands and interests therein".

SEC. 4025. SECRETARIAL REPORT.

(a) Report.-Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Interior shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report on the manner in which properties are listed or determined to be eligible for listing on the National Register, including but not limited to, the appropriateness of the criteria used in determining such eligibility, and the effect, if any, of such listing or finding of eligibility.

(b) Preparation.-In preparing the report, the Secretary shall consult with, and consider the views and comments of other Federal agencies, as well as interested individuals and public and private organizations, and shall include representative comments received as an appendix to the report.


CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

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CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

Robert E. Pierce passed away on Feb. 9th, 2010. Info. from obit found on the internet by Rich Noar. Oct. 25, 2001
The following information was found on the website [http://home.kscable.com/ussnassaucve16/] honoring the USS NASSAU CVE-16 . No Family Contact

I [Robert E. Pierce] was born on June 30, 1919 in Corona, California. I attended schools in Corona and Riverside, California. I earned a B.S. in Agricultural Economics, and an M.S. in Education.

I joined the Navy on July 15, 1938. After Boot Camp at San Diego, California, I was assigned to the U.S.S. Idaho (BB42), reassigned to the U.S.S. Salt Lake City (CA25) in April 1940 in Pearl Harbor. In September 1941, I broke my ankle and was transferred to the U.S. Naval Hospital, Pearl Harbor, and was there on December 7, 1941 as the Japanese attacked. I returned to the Salt Lake City on Tuesday, after the attack. In March 1942, I was transferred to New Construction School, Washington, D.C. I was promoted to Fire Controlman 1st Class, and assigned to the pre-commissary party for the USS Nassau (CVE-16). I served on the Nassau until February 1944, when I was commissioned to Ensign, USN and sent to commission the U.S.S. Flint (CL97).

While aboard the Nassau, my job was to keep the 20 and 40mm guns firing and aligned. Except for practice, the only time the guns were fired at the enemy was at Attu, in May of 1943.

I remained in the Navy as a Reserve Officer and later as a Limited Duty Officer (Ordnance). Finally, I retired as a Lt. Commander, USN in 1961 after serving various ships (Baltimore, Boxer, FireDrake) and stations (Naval Mine Depot Yorktown, Nuclear Weapons, San Dia Base, Naval Magazine, Guam. I was in 10 battles in the Asiatic-Pacific on the Boxer in Korea, Vietnam and China Sea. I was awarded Unit Commendation, all W.W.II ribbons and medals, Korea ribbons, GCM and Vietnam ribbons.

Other military service memories are the Boxer from San Diego to Tokyo, July 1950 at start of Korean War, reloading time still stands Sigmon Rhea, president of Korea's speech aboard Boxer three weeks before North Korean attack on July 16, 1950.


Bogue class


The escort carrier USS Copahee (CVE 12) of the US Navy.

Technical information

TypeEscort carrier
Displacement16620 BRT
Length496 feet
Complement908 men
Armament2 5" DP guns (2x1) 10 20 mm AA (10x1) 24 aircraft
Max speed18 knots
EnginesSteam turbines 1 shaft
Power8500 hp
Notes on classThese ships were known as the Bogue class in the USN and the Attacker class in the Royal Navy.

All ships of the Bogue class

US Navy (more on US Navy)

10 Escort carriers (18 names) of the Bogue class. 1 of them was lost.


7 April 1943

The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR to

FIRST LIEUTENANT JAMES E. SWETT
UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS RESERVE

for service as set forth in the following CITATION:

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty, as a division leader in Marine Fighting Squadron TWO TWENTY-ONE in action against enemy Japanese aerial forces in the Solomon Islands Area, April 7, 1943. In a daring flight to intercept a wave of 150 Japanese planes, First Lieutenant Swett unhesitatingly hurled his four-plane division into action against a formation of fifteen enemy bombers and during his dive personally exploded three hostile planes in mid-air with accurate and deadly fire. Although separated from his division while clearing the heavy concentration of anti-aircraft fire, he boldly attacked six enemy bombers, engaged the first four in turn, and unaided, shot them down in flames. Exhausting his ammunition as he closed the fifth Japanese bomber, he relentlessly drove his attack against terrific opposition which partially disabled his engine, shattered the windscreen and slashed his face. In spite of this, he brought his battered plane down with skillful precision in the water off Tulagi without further injury. The superb airmanship and tenacious fighting spirit which enabled First Lieutenant Swett to destroy eight enemy bombers in a single flight were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

James Elms Swett was born at Seattle, Washington, 15 June 1920, the first of three children of George Elms Swett, an electrical engineer and U.S. Marine Corps reservist, and Nellie Emily Burns Swett. He grew up in San Mateo, California, where he attended San Mateo High School and the College of San Mateo. While in college, Swett learned to fly through the Civilian Pilot Training Program.

Swett enlisted in the United States Navy as a Seaman 2nd Class, 26 August 1941. He had brown hair and blue eyes, was 5 feet, 11 inches (1.803 meters) tall and weighed 154 pounds (69.9 kilograms). Seaman Swett was assigned to flight training as an Aviation Cadet at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas. While in training, Sweet elected to serve as a U.S. Marine Corps officer. On completion of flight training, James Swett was awarded the gold wings of a Naval Aviator and commissioned a Second Lieutenant, United States Marine Corps Reserve, 1 April 1942. He was then sent to MCAS Quantico at Quantico, Virginia, for advanced training.

In July 1942, 2nd Lieutenant Swett was placed under arrest for a period of ten days for “diving and zooming over traffic” below 500 feet (152 meters), along U.S. Route 1. He was then transferred to an air station in Florida.

Swett was next assigned to Marine Fighting Squadron 221 (VMF-221), Marine Air Group 21 (MAG-21), 1st Marine Air Wing, Fleet Marine Force. In March 1943, the squadron deployed from Hawaii to the South Pacific aboard the Bogue-class escort carrier USS Nassau (CVE-16), arriving at Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, in late March. VMF-221 then flew on to Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, in the Solomon Islands.

Grumman F4F Wildcat fighters at Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, 1943.

On the morning of 7 April 1943, Lieutenant Swett led a four-plane flight of Wildcats on a patrol, then returned to refuel at Henderson Field. While his fighter, Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat, Bu. No. 12084, was being serviced, word came of a large group of enemy aircraft approaching from the north. Swett and his flight joined a number of other fighters to intercept the attacking enemy aircraft.

Near the Russell Islands, about 30 miles (48 kilometers) northwest of Guadalcanal, the American fighters came in contact with an estimated 150 enemy aircraft. Swett, in combat for the first time, quickly engaged three Aichi D3A Type 99 (American reporting name, “Val”) dive bombers. He shot them down. Becoming separated from his flight, he continued to engage the enemy, shooting down several more. His right wing was damaged by American anti-aircraft guns, but he continued. Having shot down seven Vals, he engaged an eighth. The Val’s gunner fired his two 7.7 mm machine guns in defense. By this time, Swett was running out of ammunition, but his final bullets killed the enemy gunner and set the Aichi on fire. Machine gun bullets fired from the Val damaged his windshield, punctured an engine oil cooler and set the Wildcat on fire.

Aichi D3A Type 99 dive bomber, Allied reporting name, “Val”. (San Diego Air and Space Museum Photo Archives)

Unable to make it back to Henderson, Swett ditched in the ocean near Tulagi. The airplane quickly sank. It was about 25 feet (7 meters) down before Swett was able to escape from the Wildcat’s cockpit. He was picked up by a U.S. Coast Guard patrol boat. Lieutenant Swett was listed as wounded in action.

During only fifteen minutes, 2nd Lieutenant Swett destroyed seven enemy aircraft and damaged an eighth.¹ He had become an “Ace in One Day.”

This Grumman F4F Wildcat on the sea floor near Tulagi may be Lieutenant Swett’s F4F-4, Bu. No. 12084. (Dive PlanIt)

Swett was promoted to 1st Lieutenant and transitioned to the Chance Vought F4U-1 Corsair. He shot down four Mitsubishi G4M “Betty” twin-engine medium bombers and an A6M Zero, before being shot down again near New Georgia, 10 July 1943. He returned to combat in October, shot down two more Val dive bombers and a Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien Type 3 fighter, known to Allied forces as “Tony.”

During a ceremony held at Espiritu Santo, 10 October 1943, Major General Ralph Johnson Mitchell, commanding the 1st Marine Air Wing, presented First Lieutenant James Elms Swett, United States Marine Corps Reserve, the Medal of Honor.

In 1944, Captain Swett was returned to the United States, and was training with VMF-221 at MCAS Santa Barbara, California. He would meet President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House during the Spring.

Oakland Tribune, Vol. CXL, No. 20, Thursday, 20 January 1944, Page 14, Columns 5–7

Captain Swett married Miss Lois Aileen Anderson 22 January 1944 at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Burlingame, California. They would later have two sons, both of whom would go on to become Marine Corps officers.

After retraining in Southern California, VMF-221 returned to the War, assigned to the Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) in the western Pacific.

Chance Vought F4U-1D Corsair aboard USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), 6 May 1945. (U.S. Navy)

On the morning of 11 May 1945, Captain Swett was flying a combat air patrol in an F4U-1D Corsair, when the fleet was attacked by kamikaze suicide aircraft. Swett shot down a Yokosuka D4Y Suisei (“Judy”) dive bomber.

During this attack, Bunker Hill was hit by two successive kamikazes and suffered catastrophic damage. 346 men were killed in action, 43 missing in action and 264 wounded. The carrier would survive, but was out of action for the remainder of the war.

Unable to land aboard their carrier, Captain Swett organized the airplanes still airborne and led them to USS Enterprise (CV-6).

30 seconds after the first, a second Mitsubishi A6M Zero crashes into USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), 1005 hours, 11 May 1945. (U.S. Navy)

During World War II, Major Swett flew 103 combat missions. He is officially credited with 15.5 aerial victories.

Following World War II, Major Swett remained in the Marine Corps Reserve. In 1949, he took command of Marine Fighting Squadron 141 (VMF-141) at NAS Oakland. He was recalled to active duty during the Korean War, but was not sent to the war zone.

James Swett rose to the rank of Colonel. He retired from the Marine Corps in 1970.

In addition to the Medal of Honor, during his career in the Marine Corps, Colonel Swett was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross with gold star (2 awards) Purple Heart with gold star (2 awards) Air Medal with 4 gold stars (5 awards) Navy Combat Action Ribbon Presidential Unit Citation with 2 bronze stars (3 awards) Navy Unit Commendation Ribbon Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with 1 gold star and 1 silver star (6 campaigns) World War II Victory medal and the Armed Forces Reserve Medal with silver hourglass device (20 years of service).

Colonel James Elms Swett, United States Marine Corps Reserve (Retired), died at Mercy Medical Center in Redding, California, 18 January 2009, at the age of 88 years. He was buried at the Northern California Veterans Cemetery, Igo, California.

Major James E. Swett, United States Marine Corps Reserve

The Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat was a single-engine, single place mid-wing monoplane with retractable landing gear, designed for operations from United States Navy aircraft carriers. The wings could be fold alongside the fuselage for storage.

The F4F-4 was 28 feet, 10-5/8 inches (8.804 meters) long with a wingspan of 38 feet, 0 inches (11.582 meters) and height of 12 feet, 1-3/8 inches (3.693 meters). The Wildcat’s wing had 0° angle of incidence. The fixed, inner wing has 0° dihedral, while the outer wing panels have 5° dihedral. There is no sweep. The width of the airplane with its wings folded was 14 feet, 6 inches (4.420 meters). The fighter’s empty weight was 5,895 pounds (2,674 kilograms), and the gross weight, 7,975 pounds (3,618 kilograms).

Grumman F4F Wildcat, circa 1942-1943. (U.S. Navy)

The F4F-4 was powered by an air-cooled, supercharged, 1,829.399-cubic-inch-displacement (29.98 liter) Pratt & Whitney Twin WaspSSC7-G (R-1830-86) two-row, fourteen cylinder radial engine with a compression ratio of 6.7:1. The R-1830-86 was rated at 1,100 horsepower at 2,550 r.p.m. at 3,500 feet (1,067 meters), 1,000 horsepower at 2,550 r.p.m. at 19,000 feet (5,791 meters), and 1,200 horsepower at 2,700 r.p.m. for takeoff, burning 100-octane gasoline. The engine drove a three-bladed Curtiss Electric propeller with a diameter of 9 feet, 9 inches (2.972 meters) through a 3:2 gear reduction. The R-1830-86 was 5 feet, 7.44 inches (1.713 meters) long, 44 feet, 0.19 inches (1.224 meters) in diameter, and weighed 1,560 pounds (708 kilograms).

The F4F-4 Wildcat had a maximum speed 275.0 miles per hour (442.6 kilometers per hour) at Sea Level, and 318.0 miles per hour (511.8 kilometers per hour) at 19,400 feet (5,913 meters). Its service ceiling was 34,800 feet (10,607 meters), and it had a maximum range of 765 miles (1,231 kilometers).

The F4F-4 was armed with six air-cooled Browning AN-M2 .50-caliber machine guns mounted in the wings with 1,440 rounds of ammunition.

Between February 1940 and August 1945, 7,898 Wildcats were produced by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Bethpage, New York, and General Motors Eastern Aircraft Division at Linden, New Jersey.

Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat. (U.S. Navy)

¹ Various reliable sources give different values for the number of enemy aircraft shot down by 2nd Lieutenant Swett on 7 May 1943, with the most common being five. Swett claimed eight destroyed, and this is reflected in his Medal of Honor citation. The intelligence officer who investigated determined that his claims were valid. The USMC History Division credits seven enemy aircraft destroyed: “Colonel James Elms Swett, of San Mateo, California, earned the Medal of Honor in World War II for shooting down seven Japanese bombers within 15 minutes.”


USS Croatan (CVE-25)

USS Croatan was an escort carrier launched on 1 August 1942 by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation of Seattle, Washington, under a Maritime Commission contract sponsored by Mrs. J. S. Russell and commissioned on 28 April 1943, Captain J. B. Lyon in command.

1. Service history
Sailing from San Diego, California on 2 July 1943, Croatan arrived at Norfolk, Virginia on 19 July. As the nucleus for a hunter-killer group, she sailed on 5 August for antisubmarine operations in the Atlantic covering the movement of convoys. Her planes had two skirmishes with surfaced submarines, and on 5 September initiated night flying operations from escort carriers. She returned to Norfolk on 22 September.
From 17 October-29 December 1943, Croatan made two voyages to Casablanca ferrying aircraft and plane crews for the North African operations. After another antisubmarine patrol from 14 January-27 February 1944, she took part in tests with the Naval Research Laboratory at Annapolis, Maryland. From 24 March-11 May, Croatan made a most successful patrol. On 7 April, her planes marked out the German submarine U-856, which was sunk by her escorts Champlin and Huse at 40°18′N 62°22′W. On the night of 25–26 April, her four escorts joined in sinking U-488 at 17°54′N 38°05′W. She was also successful in her patrol from 2 June-22 July. On 10 June, Croatan s planes and escorts Frost, Huse, and Inch attacked U-490 and remained in constant contact with it, forcing it to surface the next day. Sixty survivors, including the commanding officer, were rescued before the submarine sank from scuttling charges at 42°47′N 40°08′W. Aircraft and escorts Frost and Inch combined again to sink U-154 on 3 July, at 34°00′N 19°30′W.
Following a brief overhaul and radar tests with the Naval Research Laboratory, Croatan put to sea again on 20 August 1944. On 15 September, she aided survivors from the destroyer Warrington which had foundered in a hurricane. Returning to Norfolk on 1 October, Croatan next sailed for antisubmarine training at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and Bermuda, then proceeded to provide air cover for a high-speed east bound task force, returning to New York on 4 February 1945. For the next month, she qualified pilots in carrier operations, then sailed from Norfolk on 25 March to join a barrier line to intercept German submarines as part of Operation Teardrop. On 16 April, her escorts, Frost and Stanton sank U-880 and U-1235 at 47°53′N 30°26′W. Croatan returned by way of Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland to New York City on 14 May for overhaul.
From 15 September to 3 November, Croatan qualified aviators at Quonset Point, then cleared Norfolk on 23 November on the first of two transatlantic voyages to bring troops home from Le Havre, France.
Croatan was placed out of commission in reserve at Norfolk on 20 May 1946.
Reactivated, Croatan was assigned to the Military Sea Transportation Service in a noncommissioned status, manned by a civilian crew on 16 June 1958. In August 1963, she carried 23 F-104 Starfighters delivered to the Royal Norwegian Air Force 331 Squadron at Bodo, Norway. In October 1964, she served as an experimental ship under NASA control until May 1965. In August 1965, she helped transport helicopters for the US Armys 1st Cavalry Division Airmobile to Vietnam. She was stricken for disposal on 15 September 1970 and sold for scrap in 1971.


CVE-16 U.S.S. Nassau - History

Auxiliary General Environmental Research (AGER)
USS Pueblo AGER-2 (FP-344, FS-344, AKL-44) captured January 23, 1968 dipslayed North Korea

Hospital Ship (AH)
USS Comfort (AH-6) scrapped 1967
USS Hope (AH-7) scrapped 1978
USS Mercy (AH-8) scrapped 1970

Floating Dry Docks (ABSD)
USS ABSD-2 Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock 2 (AFDB-2) stricken March 24, 1987 disassembled into sections 1990
USS ABSD-4 Auxiliary Floating Dry Dock 4 (AFDB-4) stricken April 15, 1989 partially sunk in Seealder Harbor

Fleet Oiler (AO)
USS Kanawha (AO-1) sunk April 7, 1943
USS Neosho (AO-23) scuttled May 11, 1942
USS Sangamon (AO-28) converted to aircraft carrier AVG-26 (later CVE-26) February 1942
USS Guadalupe (AO-32) scrapped 1975
USS Mississinewa (AO-59) sunk November 20, 1944

Attack Transport (APA)
USS McCawley APA-4 (AP-10) sunk June 30, 1943
USS Libra (AKA-12) sold for scrap April 17, 1985
USS John Penn APA-23 (AP-51) sunk August 13, 1944
USS Elmore APA-42 scrapped circa April 1971

Minelayer (CM)
USS Ogala (ID-1255 / CM-4 / ARG-1) sunk December 7, 1941 refloated and repaired scrapped 1955

Auk-class Minesweeper (AM)
USS Starling (AM-64) transfered Mexico ARM Valentín Gómez Farías (C79/G11/P110)
USS Herald (AM-101) transfered Mexico ARM Mariano Matamoros (G17)
USS Pilot (AM-104) transfered Mexico ARM Juan Aldama (C85/G18/P116)
USS Pioneer (AM-105 / MSF-105) transfered Mexico ARM Leandro Valle (C70 / G01 / P101)
USS Sage (AM-111) transfered Mexico ARM Hermenegildo Galeana (C86/G19/P117)
USS Sway (AM-120) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio Altamirano (C80/G12/P111) at Guaymas, Mexico
USS Symbol (AM-123) transfered Mexico ARM Guillermo Prieto (C71/G02/P102)
USS Threat (AM-124) transfered Mexico ARM Francisco Zarco (C81/G13/P112)
USS Velocity (AM-128 / MSF-128) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio L. Vallarta (C82 / G14 / P113)
USS Champion (AM-314 / MSF-314) transfered Mexico to ARM Mariano Escobedo (C72 / G03 / P103)
USS Chief (AM-315 / MSF-315) transfered Mexico ARM Jesús González Ortega (C83)
USS Competent (AM-316) transfered Mexico ARM Ponciano Arriaga (G04)
USS Defense (AM-317) transfered Mexico ARM Manuel Doblado (C73)
USS Devastator (AM-318) transfered Mexico ARM Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (C74/G06/P105)
USS Gladiator (AM-319) transfered Mexico ARM Santos Degollado (C75/G07/P106) at Guaymas, Mexico
USS Spear (AM-322) transfered Mexico ARM Ignacio de la Llave (C76/G08/P107)
USS Roselle (AM-379/MSF-379) to Mexico ARM Melchor Ocampo (C78) / Melchor Ocampo (G10) / Manuel Gutiérrez Zamora (P109)
USS Scoter (AM-381) transfered Mexico ARM Gutiérrez Zamora (C84) / ARM Melchor Ocampo G16 / Felipe Xicoténcatl (P115)
USS Scoter (AM-381) transfered Mexico ARM Gutiérrez Zamora (C84/G16/P115)

Admirable-class Minesweeper (AM)
USS Hazard (AM-240/MSF-240) displayed at Freedom Park in Omaha, Nebraska
USS Inaugural (AM-242/MSF-242) sunk 1993 Mississippi River
USS Knave (AM-256/MSF-256) to Mexico ARM DM-13 / ARM Cadete Juan Escutia C56 sunk October 2000 off Puerto Morelos
USS Project (AM-278) to Philippines RPS Sama M-33 stricken 1960
USS Ransom (AM-283/MSF-283) ARM DM-12 / ARM Teniente Juan de la Barrera C55 sunk October 2000 off Cozumel
USS Scrimmage (AM-297) MV Giant II / MS Mahi sunk February 1982 off Oahu
USS Scuffle (AM-298) to Mexico ARM DM-05 / ARM General Felipe Xicoténcatl C53 sunk June 2000 off Cozumel
USS Harlequin (AM-365/MSF-365) to Mexico RM DM-20/Oceanográfico/General Pedro María Anaya/Aldabaran sunk May 2000

Auxiliary Motor Minesweeper (YMS)
YMS-51 sunk April 29, 1945
YMS-329 sunk April 28, 1945
YMS-363 sunk May 1, 1945
YMS-364 sunk May 1, 1945
YMS-481 sunk May 1, 1945

Repair Ship (AR)
USS Medusa (AR-1)
USS Vestal (AR-4) sold for scrap July 28, 1950
USS Ortolan (ASR-5) sold August 20, 1947 ultimate fate unknown
USS Chanticleer (ARS-7) sold for scrap June 1, 1974
USS Sperry (AS-12) sold for scrap 2011
USS Laertes (AR-20)

Submarine Tender (AS)
USS Holland (AS-3)
USS Fulton (AS-11)

Fleet Tug (AT)
USS Conestoga AT-54 / SP-1128 sunk March 21, 1921 discovered 2009, identified 2016
USS Seminole (AT-65) sunk October 25, 1942
USS Cocopa (ATF-101, ARM Seri, RE-03) still in use as of 2009
USS Rail (AT-139)

Harbor Tug (YT)
USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) December 7, 1941 sunk but later raised and repaired

Battleship (BB)
USS Utah BB-31 / AG-16 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS New York BB-34 sunk July 8, 1948
USS Texas BB-35 displayed at the Battleship Texas State Historic Site in LaPorte, TX
USS Nevada BB-36 sunk July 31, 1948
USS Oklahoma BB-37 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS Arizona BB-39 sunk December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor
USS New Mexico (BB-40) scrapped 1947
USS Mississippi BB-41 sold for scrap November 28, 1956
USS California BB-44 sold for scrap July 10 1959
USS Colorado BB-45 scrapped July 23, 1959
USS Maryland BB-46 scrapped July 8, 1959
USS West Virginia BB-48 sold for scrap August 24, 1959
USS North Carolina BB-55 displayed Wilmington, NC
USS South Dakota BB-57 sold for scrap October 25, 1962
USS Indiana BB-58 sold for scrap September 6, 1963
USS Massachusetts BB-59 displayed at Battleship Cove
USS Alabama BB-60 displayed at Mobile, AL
USS Iowa BB-61 display as USS Iowa Museum at Pacific Battleship Center in the Port of Los Angeles
USS New Jersey BB-62 displayed at Camden, NJ
USS Missouri BB-63 displayed at Pearl Harbor, HI
USS Wisconsin BB-64 displayed at the Battleship Museum USS Wisconsin in Norfolk, Virginia

Cruiser / Armored Crusier / Protected Cruiser
USS Baltimore (C-3, CM-1) scuttled Sept 22, 1944 discovered September 2017 by Okeanos Explorer in the Musicians Seamounts
USS Rochester (CA-2 USS New York ACR-2, USS Saratoga ACR-2) scuttled December 1941
USS Olympia (CA-6 CA-15, CL-15, IX-40) displayed Philadelphia, PA

Heavy Cruiser (CA)
USS Pensacola (CA-24) sunk November 10, 1948
USS Salt Lake City (CA-25)
USS Northampton (CL-26 / CA-26) sunk December 1, 1942
USS Chester CA-27 scrapped 1959
USS Louisville (CA-28, CL-28) scrapped 1959
USS Chicago (CA-29, CL-29) sunk January 30, 1943 Battle Of Rennell Island
USS Houston (CA-30) sunk February 28, 1942
USS Augusta (CA-31) scrapped 1960
USS New Orleans (CA-32) scrapped 1959
USS Portland (CA-33) scrapped 1959
USS Astoria (CA-34) sunk August 9, 1942
USS Indianapolis (CA-35) sunk July 30, 1945
USS Minneapolis (CA-36) scrapped July 1960
USS San Francisco (CA-38) scrapped May 1961
USS Quincy (CA-39) sunk August 9, 1942
USS Baltimore (CA-68) scrapped 1972
USS Canberra (CA-70, CAG-2) scrapped 1980

Escort Carrier (CVE)
USS Long Island CVE-1 scrapped 1977
USS Copahee CVE-12 scrapped 1961
USS Nassau CVE-16 scrapped 1961
USS Barnes CVE-20 scrapped 1959
USS Block Island CVE-21 sunk by three torpedoes from U-549
USS Breton CVE-23 scrapped 1972
USS Sangamon CVE-26 converted from oiler AO-28 during February 1942
USS Suwannee CVE-27 scrapped June 1962
USS Baffins CVE-35 (AVG-35, ACV-35, HMS Ameer)
USS Liscome Bay CVE-56 sunk November 24, 1943 *
USS Manila Bay CVE-61 scrapped 1959
USS Natoma Bay (CVE–62)
USS St. Lo CVE-63 (AVG-63, ACV-63) sunk October 25, 1944 by kamikaze attack
USS Kalinin Bay CVE-68 scrapped 1946
USS Kadashan Bay (CVE-76)
USS Ommaney Bay CVE-79 sunk January 4, 1945
USS Sargent Bay (CVE-83) scrapped 1959
USS Gambier Bay CVE-93 sunk October 25, 1944 *
USS Kwajalein CVE-98 scrapped 1961
USS Block Island (CVE-106) scrapped 1960
USS Gilbert Islands CVE-107 scrapped 1979

Light Aircraft Carrier (CVL)
USS Independence CVL-22 (CV-22) scuttled 1951
USS Princeton CVL-23 sunk October 24, 1944 *
USS Belleau Wood CVL-24 transfered to the French Navy then returned 1960, scrapped 1960
USS Cowpens CVL-25 (CV-25, AVT-1) scrapped 1960
USS Monterey CVL-26 (CV-26) scrapped May 1971
USS Langley CVL-27 scrapped 1964
USS Cabot CVL-28 scrapped 2002
USS Bataan CVL-29 scrapped 1961
USS San Jacinto CV-30 (CVL-30) scrapped 1971

Destroyer (DD), Destroyer Escort (DE), Destroyer Minesweeper (DMS), High-Speed Transport (APD) and Auxiliary Seaplane Tender (AVD)
USS Manley DD-74
USS Rathburne DD-113 (APD-25) sold for scrap November 1946
USS Little DD-79 (APD-4) sunk September 5, 1942
USS Gregory DD-82 (APD-3) sunk September 5, 1942
USS McKean DD-90
USS Talbot DD-114 (APD-7) scrapped January 30, 1946
USS Gamble DD-123 (DM-15) scuttled July 16, 1945 outside Apra Harbor off Guam
USS Ward (No. 139, DD-139, APD-16) sunk December 7, 1944 Battle of Ormoc Bay
USS Elliot (DD-146)
USS Crosby (No. 164, DD-164, APD-17
USS Liddle DE-206 / APD-60 sold for scrap 1967
USS Southard (DD-207 / DMS-10)
USS Kephart DE-207 (APD-61, Kyong Puk PF-82)
USS Hovey DD-208 (DMS-11)
USS Long DD-209 sunk January 6, 1945 by kamikaze
USS Barker (DD-213) scrapped November 30, 1945
USS John D. Edwards (DD-216) scrapped November 30, 1945
USS Parrott (DD-218) scrapped April 5, 1947
USS Edsall (DD-219) sunk March 1, 1942
USS Bulmer (DD-222) scrapped February 19, 1947
USS Stewart (DD-224) scuttled March 2, 1942 repaired by the Japanese as Patrol Boat No. 102
USS Pope DD-225 sunk March 1, 1942 *
USS Peary DD-226 sunk February 19, 1942
USS Pillsbury DD-227 sunk March 2, 1942 by Japanese cruisers Atago and Takao
USS Ballard DD-267 (AVD-10)
USS Dale DD-290 (SS Masaya) sunk March 28, 1943
USS Osborne DD-295 (SS Matagalpa) burned June 26, 1942, scuttled September 6, 1947
USS Zane DD-337 (DMS-14/AG-109) scrapped 1947
USS Trever DD-339 (DMS-16/AG-110) scrapped 1946
USS Perry DD-340 (DMS-17) sunk September 14, 1944 *
USS William B. Preston DD-344 (AVP-20 / AVD-7) scrapped November 6, 1946
USS Macdonough (DD-351) scrapped 1946
USS Worden (DD-352) grounded January 12, 1943
USS Selfridge DD-357
USS Phelps DD-360 scrapped August 1947
USS Mahan (DD-364) sunk December 7, 1944 during Battle of Ormoc Bay
USS Drayton DD-366 scrapped December 1946
USS Lamson DD-367 sunk July 1, 1946 during test "Able" atomic bomb
USS Reid DD-369
USS Case DD-370
USS Cassin DD-372 December 7, 1941 destroyed, parts salvaged
USS Shaw DD-373 December 7, 1941 heavy damage, scrapped July 1946
USS Downes DD-375 December 7, 1941 destroyed, parts salvaged and recomissioned, scrapped November 18, 1947
USS Cushing DD-376 sunk November 13, 1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
USS Perkins DD-377 sunk November 29, 1942 after collision with MV Duntroon
USS Preston DD-379 sunk November 14, 1942
USS Gridley DD-380
USS Bagley DD-386 scrapped September 8, 1947
USS Blue DD-387 sunk August 22, 1942 *
USS Helm (DD-388) December 7, 191 light damage
USS Mugford DD-389 *
USS Ralph Talbot (DD-390)
USS Henley DD-391 sunk October 3, 1943
USS Jarvis DD-393 sunk August 9, 1942
USS Ellet DD-398
USS McCall DD-400
USS Maury DD-401
USS Edmonds DE-406
USS Sterett DD-407
USS Sims DD-409 sunk May 7, 1942
USS Anderson DD-411
USS Hammann DD-412 sunk June 6, 1942 by I-168 during the Battle of Midway
USS Mustin DD-413 scuttled April 18, 1948 by gunfire off Kwajalein
USS Samuel B. Roberts DE-413 sunk October 25, 1944
USS Walke DD-416 sunk November 15, 1942
USS Gwin DD-433 damaged July 13, 1943 scuttled
USS Monssen DD-436 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Fletcher DD-445 scrapped 1972
USS Radford DD-446
USS Jenkins DD-447
USS Nicholas DD-449
USS O'Bannon DD-450
USS Laffey DD-459 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Woodworth DD-460
USS Saufley DD-465 sunk February 20, 1968
USS Strong DD-467 sunk July 5, 1943
USS De Haven DD-469 sunk February 1, 1943
USS Bache DD-470
USS Bennett DD-473
USS Emmons DD-475 / DMS-22 sunk April 6, 1945
USS Hutchins DD-476
USS Pringle DD-477 sunk April 1, 1945 *
USS Aaron Ward DD-483 sunk April 7, 1943
USS Buchanan DD-484 transfered to Turkey as TCG Gelibolu (D-346) scrapped 1976
USS Duncan DD-485 sunk October 12, 1942
USS Lansdowne DD-486
USS Lardner DD-487
USS McCalla (DD-488)
USS Farenholt DD-491
USS Philip DD-498 (DDE-498) sunk February 2, 1972
USS Renshaw DD-499
USS Conway DD-507 sunk as target June 26, 1970
USS Brownson DD-518 sunk December 26, 1943
USS Daly DD-519
USS Abner Read DD-526
USS Bush DD-529 sunk April 6, 1945
USS Hoel DD-533 *
USS Lewis DE-535
USS John D. Henley DD-553
USS Johnston DD-557 sunk October 25, 1944
USS Prichett DD-561 (Geniere (D 555) transferred to Italy 1970 scrapped 1975
USS Aulick DD-569
USS Burns DD-588
USS Barton DD-599 sunk November 13, 1942
USS Meade DD-602
USS Kalk DD-611 sunk March 1969 as target
USS England DE-635 sold for scrap November 26, 1946
USS Sigourney DD-643 scrapped July 31, 1975
USS Kidd DD-661
USS Gatling (DD-671)
USS Underhill (DE-682) sunk July 24, 1945 by Kaiten
USS Cooper DD-695 sunk December 3, 1944
USS Walke DD-723 scrapped 1975
USS O'Brien (DD-725)
USS Strong (DD-758/DE-758) / Rio Grande do Norte (D-37) sunk 1997 off Durban while under tow from Brazil to India for scrapping
USS Slater DE-766 (Aetos D01) displayed at the Destroyer Escort Historical Museum in Albany, NY
USS Ebert DE-768 sunk July 2002
USS Aaron Ward (DD-773/DM-34) scrapped 1946
USS Henderson DD-785
USS Cassin Young DD-793
USS Colhoun (DD-801) damaged April 6, 1945 by kamikaze aircraft and returned to United States
USS Little DD-803 sunk May 3, 1945 by kamikaze off Okinawa
USS Basilone DD 824 sunk on April 9, 1982
USS Joseph P. Kennedy (DD-850) displayed at Battleship Cove
USS Jesse L. Brown (DE-1089) sold to Egypt Damiyat F961

FP-Type Freight and Cargo (FS)
FS-172 ran aground and sank July 1946 near Cape Croisilles on New Guinea
FS-177 sunk July 17, 1972

Unidentified Landing Craft
Unidentified Landing Craft sunk off Kwajalein
Concrete Barge sunk off Kwajalein

Landing Craft Infantry (LCI) / LCI(L) / LCI(M)
LCI(L)-600 sunk January 12, 1945 by Kaiten with the loss of three crew
USS LCI(M)-807 / USS LCI(G)-807 / USS LCI(L)-807 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped

Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM)
LCM(3) P-56 displayed at Battleship Cove
LCM(3) sunk off Gavutu Island

Landing Ship Medium (LSM)
USS LSM-201 sold for scrap on November 10, 1946 and scrapped afterwards
USS LSM(R)-195 sunk on May 3, 1945 off Okinawa

Landing Ship Tank (LST)
USS LST-18 landed at Tanahmerah on April 24, 1944
USS LST-169 scrapped circa 1947
USS LST-202
USS LST-245 scrapped circa 1948
USS LST-340 (USS Spark, IX-196) damaged June 16, 1943 repaired
USS LST-342 sunk July 18, 1943, bow beached at Florida Island
USS LST-353
USS LST-396
USS LST-454 scrapped 1947
USS LST-456 (Q043, USNS T-LST-456, MV Karkas, MV Bshair) ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-480 sunk May 20, 1944 due to an ammunition explosion in West Lock
USS LST-577 sunk February 10, 1945 by a torpedo fired by RO-50
USS LST-711 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-927 scrapped December 9, 1947
USS LST-974 ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS LST-1110 (USS San Bernardion County, RPS Chung Chiang) scrapped 1993

Liberty Ship (EC2-S-C1)
SS John W. Brown docked Baltimore Harbor, Maryland operated by Project Liberty Ship
SS Russell H. Chittenden ran aground March 13, 1945 and wrecked
SS Rufus King ran aground July 7, 1942
SS Jeremiah O'Brien docked at Pier 45 at Fisherman's Wharf, San Francisco The National Liberty Ship Memorial, Inc
SS Joseph Stanton scrapped 1964
SS John L. Sullivan (YAG-37) scrapped 1958

Motor Gunboat (PGM)
USS PGM-7 sunk July 18, 1944

Motor Torpedo Boat Tender (PG, AGP)
USS Jamestown PG-55 scrapped December 16, 1946
USS Hilo PG-58 (AGP-2) ultimate fate unknown likely scrapped
USS Oyster Bay (AGP-6, AVP-28) transfered to Itay

Schooner
USS Lanikai sunk 1947 during typhoon

Subchaster (SC)
USS SC-750
USS SC-772

Transport & Ocean Liner (SS, USAT, USS)
SS Masaya (Formerly USS Dale DD-290) sunk March 28, 1943
SS Matagalpa (Formally USS Osborne DD-295) Burned June 26, 1942, scuttled September 6, 1947
USAT Liberty sunk January 11, 1942
SS President Coolidge sunk October 26, 1942 accidental collision with a mine
SS President Grant grounded February 26, 1944
USS President Taylor (Granite State, President Polk) Grounded February 14, 1942
SS Stanvac Manila sunk May 24, 1943

Victory Ship (VC2-S-AP2)
SS American Victory displayed at Tampa, Florida at SS American Victory Ship Mariners Memorial Museum
SS Lane Victory docked San Pedro operated by US Merchant Marine Veterans of WWII
SS Red Oak Victory displayed at the Rosie the Riveter / World War II Home Front National Historical Park

Fuel Barge Non Self-Propelled (YON)
Erskine M. Phelps (YON-147) sunk April 7, 1943 later raised and salvaged

Unclassified Miscellaneous Vessel (IX)
USS Olympia (IX-40) displayed Philadelphia, PA
Etamin IX-173 (USS Etamin AK-93) scrapped 1948
USS Ocelot (IX-110) sold for scrap 1948
USS Armadillo (IX-111)
USS Abarenda (IX-131)
USS Spark (IX-196) formally USS LST-340
IX-522 section D of USS AFBD-2 at NAVSEA Inactive Ships On-Site Maintenance Office at Pearl Harbor.
IX-524 section F of USS AFBD-2 towed to Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kekaha, Hawaii
IX-535 section H of USS AFBD-2 towed to Pacific Missile Range Facility at Kekaha, Hawaii

Yacht (PY)
USS Isabel (PY-10) scrapped March 1946

HistoryLink.org

On June 21, 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-25 shells the U.S. Army's Fort Stevens coastal defenses on the Oregon side of the mouth of the Columbia River. The Japanese are retaliating for the U.S. bombing of Japan the prior April. The U.S. batteries do not return fire and there is no serious damage.

The mouth of the Columbia River was defended by three Army forts: Fort Stevens on the Oregon side and Forts Canby and Columbia on the Washington side. In 1942, Coast Artillery and National Guard units manned heavy guns and mortars dating from the turn of the twentieth century. The weapons covering the beaches dated from World War I.

On April 18, 1942, 16 U.S. Army B-25 bombers attacked the Japanese home islands after being launched from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Hornet. The Doolittle Raid, as it came to be known, had little tactical effect and all the planes were lost. The episode did cause Japanese military leaders to adjust their disposition of forces throughout the Pacific. A number of I-class, long-range submarines were dispatched across the Pacific to raid shipping and the U.S. and Canadian West Coast.

The Japanese high command dispatched submarines I-25 and I-26 to the Pacific Northwest to look for naval vessels headed to Alaska and the Aleutians. On June 20, 1942, I-26 shelled the lighthouse at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island, and I-25, under the command of Commander Meiji Tagami, torpedoed and shelled the freighter S.S. Fort Camosun off Cape Flattery. The freighter did not sink and she was towed to safety in Neah Bay.

On the evening of June 21, 1942, the I-25 used a screen of fishing boats to avoid minefields off the Columbia and took position off Fort Stevens. On the surface, the crew fired its 14 cm (5.5 inch) deck gun at the shore without taking aim. At the first shot, soldiers at the fort manned their guns and searchlights, and lookouts could see the sub firing. But the enemy ship was plotted (erroneously) to be out of the range, and the artillerymen never received permission to return fire. Also, the fort's commander did not want to give away the precise location of the defenses.

The I-25's shells fell harmlessly in the sand and scrub around Battery Russell, damaging only the baseball diamond backstop and a power line. One soldier cut his head rushing to his battle station. At about midnight, firing ceased and the sub departed to the west, then north. The Japanese crew fired 17 rounds, but witnesses ashore only counted between 9 and 14 shots. Some shells might have been duds or might have fallen into the sea.

I-25 attacked the U.S. again in September 1942 when it launched an aircraft that dropped incendiary bombs in the forests in southern Oregon. There was no conflagration as was hoped by the high command. I-25 then attacked and sank two ships off the Oregon coast, and torpedoed a Soviet submarine by mistake in the mid-Pacific.

U.S. destroyers sunk the I-25 in 1943. Several of her crew had been transferred and they survived the war to relate their stories.

The attack on Fort Stevens illustrated a flaw in U.S. coastal defense strategy. Despite the efforts of military engineers, enemies could always develop weapons with longer ranges than coastal guns. The I-25's small deck gun could outshoot the big rifles and mortars in the fort.

By January 1944, most Coast Artillery units had been disbanded. In 1975, the property became a unit of the Oregon State Parks system.

10" disappearing rifle at Fort Stevens, ca. 1942

Courtesy Friends of Old Fort Stevens

Soldiers and Japanese shell crater, Fort Stevens, Oregon, June 1942

Courtesy National Archives, (ARC 299678)

Fort Stevens State Park, 2004

Courtesy Oregon State Parks

Sources:

Bert Webber, Retaliation: Japanese Attacks and Allied Countermeasures on the Pacific Coast in World War II (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1975).
Note: This essay was corrected on November 7, 2011.


USS Block Island (CVE 21)


US Naval Historical Center Photograph #NH106576

This is a listing of people associated with this ship.
We also have a detailed page on the American escort carrier USS Block Island (CVE 21).

Aboard USS Block Island (CVE 21) when hit on 29 May 1944

You can click on any of the names for possible additional information

NameAgeRankServed on
Abel, Alfred Oliver, USN Chief Commissary StewardUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Adsit, Harold Ira, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ahern, James Francis, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Airoldi, Chester Paul, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Aker, George Ellsworth, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Albea, James Bussey, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Aleck, Nick, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Allen, Russell Leroy, USNR Yeoman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Allen, Sprunt Johnnie, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Allen, Wyman Everette, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Alvarez, Armand, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Anderson, Lawrence Dean, USNR Pharmacist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Andresen, Eugene Raymond, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ankiewicz, Charles George, USNR Water Tender First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Annunziata, Joseph Pelligrino, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Antosh, Joseph Paul, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Arens, Austin John, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Armstrong, John Everett, USNR Electrician's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Arnold, Francis Hussong, USN Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bailey, Clarence M., USN Chief CarpenterUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bair, Eldred Eugene, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Baker, Cyrel Chandler, USNR Yeoman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Baldwin, Jerome Donald, USN Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ballard, Frederick A., USNR Lieutenant CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Banner, Reginald Percy, USNR Motor Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Barksdale, Thomas Mayfield, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Barnes, Bertrum P., USN Boatswain's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Barnett, Jacob A., USN Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bartlett, Sylvester, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Battle, Otis Thomas, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bazemore, Cling, USNR Hospital Apprentice First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bazzini, Emil George, USNR Carpenter's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Beasley, Warren Denney, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Beckworth, Claud Keger, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bell, George Curtis, USNR Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bell, George Everett, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bell, William Francis, USNR Yeoman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Benner, George Benjamin, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Benson, Kenneth Earlie, USNR Fire Controlman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bergstrom, Harvey Raymond, USNR Electrician's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bernal, Ernest Robert, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Betz, Carl Milton, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bevel, Walter Shivers, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Biggs, Arthur Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Biron, Irving Angelo, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bishop, Daniel Cristoplice, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bishop, Harold Henley, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Black, Ralph Thorne, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Blackburn, W.C., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Blalock, James Boyce, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Blank, Chester Robert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Booi, Walter Joseph, USN Electrician's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Booth, Everett Wendell, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Booth, Jules Robert, USN Radarman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Botelho, Robert William, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Botsford, Richard Adelbert, USNR Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bouck, Gene Warren, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Boudreaux, Wilbur Anthony, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bowling, Rudell Townsend, USNR Aviation Bombsight Mechanic First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bowman, Julius William, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Boyer, Frank James, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bradley, William Edwin, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brand, Charles, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brand, Henry, USN Aviation Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brannigan, Francis, USN Aviation Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Branum, Carl Ambers, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bratton, Dennis, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brendle, Boyd Wharton, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bridges, Gene Frank, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brink, Harold Lester, USN Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Britt, Thomas Kirk, USNR Photographer's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Broadt, Leroy Conrad, USN Chief Pharmacist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brod, Leander Andrews, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bronson, Freddie Horace, USNR Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brower, Don W., USNR Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Charles Ellwood, USNR Chief YeomanUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Charles Lawrence, USN Aviation Metalsmith First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Charlie, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Gene, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Henry, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Jack Dale, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, James Richard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Brown, Pierce, USN Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Browne, John Joseph, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Buckner, Harold Houston, USNR Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Buckner, Waneard Austin, USN Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Buell, Robert Perry, USNR LieutenantUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Buena, Crispin, USNR Steward First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bullis, Martin Nichols, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Burchfield, Calvin Warren, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Burgan, Donald A., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Burnes, R.F., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Burnette, Walter R., USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Bustamante, Abraham, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Butler, Curtis Nelson, USNR Radarman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Butow, Arthur Ray, USN Shipfitter First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Buxie, Francis, USNR Steward Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Byrd, Williamson Albert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Byrne, L.C., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cadawas, Santos Cruz, USNR Cook Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cain, Lewis Benford, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Caine, Ellis Warren, USN Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Caldwell, William Bartlett, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Campilli, Olvaldo, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cannon, Clyde Vernon, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cannon, Gordon Phillip, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cannon, Jack Leland, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cansler, Robert, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Capen, Robert Frank, USN Aviation Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carmel, Robert Paul, USNR Hospital Apprentice First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carney, William, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carpenter, Arthur Raymond, USNR Hospital Apprentice First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carr, John F., USN Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carr, Norman Bertram, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Carter, Milton Duval, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Caster, Paul Monroe, USNR Chief Photographer's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cavner, Richard Donald, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Chamberlain, James David, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Chan, Patrick Hop, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Chatham, Archie Reeves, USN Shipfitter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Chevalier, Harold Edward, USNR Yeoman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Church, Earl, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Church, Ellis Charles, USN Boatswain's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ciemiewicz, Joseph John, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cileo, Santo Paul, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clark, James, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clark, James Kay, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clarke, Lewis Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clarno, Eugene Lyle, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clement, James Martin, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clemento, Thomas, USN Chief YeomanUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clemons, Jack Ambrose, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Clewis, Carson, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Coate, Charles Franklin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Coates, William Earl, USN Fire Controlman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cobia, Bobbie Eugene, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Coen, Rex D., USN Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Coffee, Leon Grady, USNR Steward Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Colbert, Virgil James, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Coleman, Alonzo Burton, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Colletti, Jerry Carmine, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Colvin, William Robert, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Connolly, Joseph William, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cook, Charles Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cook, Orra Ivan, USNR Pharmacist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cooper, Harold LeRoy, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Costello, James Joseph, USNR Fire Controlman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Courtney, Edward Maurice, USNR Yeoman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cousineau, Donald Myles, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cox, Robert Lee, USN Baker Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Crane, Raymond Michael, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Creviston, Paul Rat, USN Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Crews, Andrew Thomas, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Crosby, Carlton Charlie, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Culberson, Alexander, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cunningham, Joseph Edward, USN Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cupka, John Joseph, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Current, Eugene, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Curtis, Pearson Gilbert, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Custer, Jasper L., USNR CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Cyr, Walter Garland, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
D'Antuono, Antonio, USN Ship's Cook Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dahneke, Jack Mathew, USNR Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Daigre, Felton Antony, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Daley, George Philip, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Daly, Irvin Henry, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Damelin, Robert George, USNR Signalman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dargus, Dominick, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dauphinais, Raymond Charles, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Davis, William Harold, USN Radioman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Davison, Henry Royal, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dawley, Forest Earl, USNR Baker Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Berry, Robert Green, USN Chief Electrician's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Biase, Patsey Francis, USNR Shipfitter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Celles, Henry, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Donato, John Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Vito, George Anthony, USNR Signalman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
De Vos, George Daniel, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dearden, Joseph Herbert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Deffenbaugh, Robert Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Delhomme, Louis Mouton, USNR Yeoman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Demello, Alfred, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dennison, Alan V., USNR LieutenantUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dennisuk, Victor, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dentone, James, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Devanna, Arthur Raymond, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dever, James Bernard, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Di Prospero, Mario N., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Difiglia, Charles, USNR Torpedoman's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dionne, Reme Louis, USNR Motor Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dishaw, Frederick Maurice, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dix, John Clair, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dobbins, Jack, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Doggett, Cecil J., USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Doherty, Francis Xavier, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dolan, Edward Dorsey, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Donahue, Bartley, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dorriety, James Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Downey, John James, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Downing, William Keith, USNR Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Doxtader, Francis Guy, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dozier, Eugene, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Drake, Philip Sterns, USNR Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ducharme, Norman E., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Duerk, Edwin William, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Duffy, James Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Dulman, Albert Leon, USNR Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ebel, Milton Irvin, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Eberhardt, Edward Malhon, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Eddy, Cleal Gerald, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Edgington, Marion Oscar, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Edmondson, Kirk R., USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Edwards, Donald Dale, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Edwards, Napoleon Bonneparte, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Edwards, Rutherfold Lee, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Effinger, Edward Thompson, USNR Shipfitter First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Elam, James Garland, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ellingson, John Roe, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ellison, Warren G. Harden, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Elopre, Fernando, USN Chief CookUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Erbes, Oscar Leo, USNR Signalman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ernest, Clifford Robert, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Escumbise, Espiridion, USNR Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Evans, Amos Jones, USNR Ship's Cook Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Evers, Louis Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fabian, Francis Maurice, USNR Radioman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fagan, Thomas John, USNR Machinist's Mate Engineman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Farley, Harold Lafayette, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Farrel, Melvin Mearl, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Faulk, John Andrew, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fedele, John Elbe, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Felker, Paul Russell, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fell, Mathias Joseph, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fickas, James Byron, USNR Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fincher, Cecil Lane, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fisher, Fred August, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Flanders, Jimmy Donoran, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Floyd, Herbert Aubrey, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Flynn, Chester Patrick, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ford, Roy Louis, USN Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Foreman, Amos Edward, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Foss, William Marion, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fossum, Arthur Martin, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Foster, Charles Carmack, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Foster, Charles Wilson, USNR Aviation Radioman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fournier, Albert Henry, USNR Shipfitter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fowler, Gustus William, USN Aviation Chief MetalsmithUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Frame, Earl Samuel, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Hydraulic Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Franks, James O'Neil, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Frasher, Chester Hobert, USN Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Freeman, Winfield, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
French, June Henry, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fuller, John James, USNR Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fusci, Peter Alexander, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Fusco, Francis Angelo, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gadson, Wesley, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gamba, Joe Charles, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Garriott, Lawrence Emery, USN Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Garrison, C.B., USNR Torpedoman's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gasper, William Pete, USNR Aviation Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gatta, Antonio Leonard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gauthier, Francis Richard, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gellner, Robert James, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gentry, Charles Ray, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Georgeadis, Christostomo, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gerdes, Clyde Edward, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gibbs, Melvin Lesley, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gibson, Edward William, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gibson, Lloyd Gordon, USN Quartermaster First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Giovanniello, Urbano Carl, USN Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gober, Phillip Bell, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Goetz, Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Goodwin, John Raymond, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Goos, Jacob W., USN Torpedoman's Mate Aviation Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gosby, Eddie, USN Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Grant, Herman James, USNR Steward Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Grant, Robert Arthur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Green, George Robert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Green, Robert Wesley, USNR Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Greer, Jack Herbert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Griffin, Eugene Sterling, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Griffin, James Parker, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Griswold, William Harrison, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Grizzard, James Hulan, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Grogan, William Joseph, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gronau, Victor Paul, USNR Electrician's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Groninger, Richard LeRoy, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gronvold, George R., USN CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gstalter, Edmond Albert Russell, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Guay, Leonard Bartholomew, USNR Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Guilfoile, William Russell, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Instrument Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gurr, Wesley Edward, USNR Baker Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Gustafson, George Goodwin, USNR Radarman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hagan, William Joseph, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hahn, Francis Aosa, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hall, Clifford Max, USN Water Tender First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Halliday, Thomas Robert, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hamilton, Samuel Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hamrick, Donald, USN Shipfitter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hanes, Marvin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hanlon, Joseph Daniel, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hardman, Manuel Deearmond, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Harper, Charles James, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Harrell, William Henderson, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Harrington, David William, USNR Radio Technician First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Harrington, Wallace Aallen, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hart, Kenneth Clifford, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hastings, James David, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Heather, Leo Henry, USN Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Heide, Robert Lee, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hellwig, Louis Herman, USN Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Henderson, Colman Burkett, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Henderson, Marlin Myron, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hepting, William Bernhard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Herbst, Isadore Albin, USN Storekeeper First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Herman, George Elmer, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Herman, William Norman, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hernandez, Frank Guerrero, USNR Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hess, Walter Henry, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Heyer, Harvey William, USNR Aviation Bombsight Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hice, Raymond Ellis, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hill, Allen Hugh, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hill, Edwin Joseph, USNR Aviation Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hoff, Paul Franklin, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Holcomb, Ernest Augusta, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Holmes, Robert Patterson, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hoobler, Norman Gunn, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hood, William A., USN Lieutenant CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hopson, Joseph Daniel, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Horen, Robert, USNR Pharmacist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Horsefield, Albert Marvin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hospers, Werner Albert, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Huckstep, Joseph Franklin, USNR Shipfitter First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hughes, Francis Massie, USN CaptainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hughes, James Thomas, USNR Painter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Humphlett, Eugene Mathews, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hurdle, Thomas Lynn, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hutzler, Harry Edward, USN Boatswain's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Hypse, LeRoy Edwin, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ide, William Clarence, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Innis, Robert Earnest, USNR EnsignUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Iyall, Jack Aoner, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jaadan, Philip Nelson, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jackson, Archie Otto, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jackson, Thornwell O., USNR Storekeeper First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
James, Murray Allen, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
James, Vester Lee, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jamison, Merle George, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jarvis, Robert Phillip, USNR Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jenkins, Gilbert Richard, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Johnson, Edward O'Neil, USNR Aviation Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Johnson, Frederick Bruce, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Johnson, Leonard Leroy, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Johnson, Norman Garvice, USN Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Johnson, Onnie Claude, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jones, Edsel Thomas, USN Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jones, Harold Emerson, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jones, John Henry, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jones, Joseph Rufus, USNR Aviation Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jones, Lester Wilson, USN Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Jordan, L.T., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Joshua, Edmond, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kattlove, Litman Lawrence, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kearl, Theo J., USN Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Keiser, John William, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Keller, Billy Ray, USNR Radarman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Keller, Lester Prince, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kemp, James William, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kennedy, Clinton Veranice, USNR Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kerr, Edward Thomas, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ketchum, Richard James, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Key, James William, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kibash, James Peter, USNR Machinist’s Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Kieszek, Walter Stanley, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kimball, Robert Bryson, USNR Boilermaker Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kimberlin, Emmett Howard, USNR Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kimmel, Robert Ellsworth, USN Gunner's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
King, Earl Thomas, USN Fire Controlman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kirk, James Jacob, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kirkpatrick, Jean Harold, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Klecker, Leon Henry, USNR Water Tender Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Klempfner, Milton Jacob, USNR Shipfitter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kluss, Edward Victor, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Knapp, James, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kneeves, Leslie, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kneip, Gilbert Frank, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Knowles, Charles Clifford, USNR Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Knowles, Robert S., USNR Lieutenant CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Knox, Matthew Andrew, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Knutson, Arne Edward, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kobb, Donald Andrew, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Hydraulic Mechanic First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kodman, Steven, USNR Electrician's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kolhoss, Munsey Lee, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kon, Michael, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Koonce, Wilburn Lee, USNR Aerographer's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kralj, George Joseph, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kramer, Harold Fayne, USN Baker Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kraus, Vincent, USNR Electrician's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kring, Theodore Morgan, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Krische, Matthew, USNR Fire Controlman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kroner, Lawrence Roy, USN Electrician's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Krueger, Theodore Roosevelt, USNR Aerographer's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kulas, Engelbert Anthony, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kulik, Edward Gerard, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Kvatintz, Hyman, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
La Salle, Frederick Marcus, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lackey, Floyd Caldwell, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lago, Joseph Duran, USNR Shipfitter Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lair, Allen Howard, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lambert, Robert Eugene, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lampi, Waino, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Landry, Larvern Etinne, USNR Machinist's Mate Engineman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lapeyrolerie, Arlie Joseph, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lash, Robert Thomas, USNR Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lauderdale, John Dock, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lee, Norman Carl, USN Radarman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lee, Wayne Jay, USN Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Leeks, Alfred, USNR Aviation Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Leet, Kenneth Winston, USNR Yeoman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lentz, Howard Otto Wilfred, USN Parachute Rigger First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Leonard, John Henry, USNR Aerographer's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lewey, James Lloyd, USNR Shipfitter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lewis, Russell Victor, Civilian TechnicianUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Liberty, George Edward, USN Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lindgren, Francis John, USNR Radio Technician First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Long, Otis Melrose, USN Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lord, Robert Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lorentzen, Elmer Claire, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lueder, Richard Russell, USN Bugler First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Luetger, Ralph E., USN Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Lybarger, Chester Crum, USNR Ship's Cook First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Macaluso, James, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
MacInnes, Gorden A., USNR LieutenantUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Magnuson, Lloyd Willard, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Major, Jack Arnold, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Maldonado, Alfredo Frank, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Male, Thorman Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mandozzi, Philip, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Manning, Vinton Wayne, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Marino, Frederick James, USNR Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Martin, Andres Nieto, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Martin, Cleveland T., USNR Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Martin, Leon Junior, USNR Pharmacist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Martin, Lester Samuel, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Martin, Richard Wilbur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Maslanka, Stanley Joseph, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Masters, George Thomas, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mastrangelo, Louis Dominic, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mathis, Robert Joseph, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mayo, Norwood Simmons, USN Water Tender First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McArt, George Raymond, USN Chief Torpedoman's Mate AviationUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McBride, Donald Harris, USN Gunner's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McCall, Cecil Earnest, USN Buglemaster Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McCollum, Gerald Washington, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McCoy, Charles Russell, USN Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McCue, Donald Hulet, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McCullough, Calvin Wilson, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McDaniel, James G., USN Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21)
McDonald, Gerald Richard, USNR Torpedoman's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McDonald, Robert Emmett, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McElhaney, Harry L., USNR LieutenantUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McGhghy, Harmond Dwight, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McKay, Harry, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McKenny, Albert Louis, USN Fire Controlman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McKinney, Guy Hershell, USN Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McLain, Charles Christopher, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McManus, Preston Truman, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McMath, Irwin Archibald, USNR Chief Water TenderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McMillan, Ray Emile, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McMurrey, Ira Lawrence, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McNamara, Charles William, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
McNatt, James Raymond, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Medaglia, Frank Domenick, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Medley, Hubert, USNR Steward Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Melnick, Walter William, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Merchant, Carlos Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mercher, Thomas Alvin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Merrill, Donald Edward, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Merritt, Collins Franklin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Messinger, William Koons, USNR Torpedoman's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Meyer, Henry Alfred, USNR Electrician’s Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Meyers, Willis Wilson, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Michell, Anthony James, USN Chief Gunner's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miketinac, Nicholas Michael, USNR Chief Specialist (A)USS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miller, Edward, USNR Pharmacist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miller, Edward Bernard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miller, George Thomas, USNR Torpedoman's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miller, Jack, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Miller, John Denton, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mitchell, James John, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mixon, Charles Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Montesinos, Ralph, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Montgomery, Mack Leonidas, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Monti, Charles Joseph, USNR Ship's Cook Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Moore, Curtis, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Moore, George Willard, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Moore, Jackson Albert, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Moore, Leland Edsel, USNR Aviation Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mora, Dario, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Morgan, James W., USN Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Morrisroe, John Michael, USNR Fire Controlman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Mrazek, Jay Charles, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Murphy, James Joseph, USNR Ship's Cook First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Musselwhite, Emory Marvin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Myers, David Franklin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Myers, James, USNR Yeoman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Myers, Robert Keith, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nanney, William Douglas, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Naylor, Boyd Eugene, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nealey, Herman Howard, USN Photographer's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nelson, Harold Duke, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nicholson, Paul W., USNR Aviation Metalsmith Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nicolini, George William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nipper, James Edward, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Noblett, James Gordon, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Noone, Francis Joseph, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nordstrom, James Arthur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Norman, John William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Norman, Reeves John, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nottingham, Gerald Hamilton, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Nowikowsky, Bernard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Bernier, Walter Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Brien, Charles Patrick, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Brien, Cornelius James, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Brien, James Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Brien, James Joseph, USNR Painter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Connell, Robert Emmett, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Connor, Dennis Joseph, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Donell, Ervin Leroy, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Keefe, Harry Elliott, USNR Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Keefe, Wilbur Fiske, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Neil, William Joseph, USNR Radarman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Rourke, Edward James, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Rourke, Francis Xavier, USNR Radarman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
O'Shea, Clarence Joseph, USNR Radarman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Oborn, Richard Eugene, USN Water Tender Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ogrodnik, Raymond Albert, USNR Aerographer's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Oliver, Robert LeRoy, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Olsen, Ralph Warren, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Olson, Oscar Frederick, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Orchel, John, USN Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Orin, Solano Samonte, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Orsini, Albert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Osborne, John Francis, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ostermiller, Herman Harold, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Otto, Herbert Ross, USNR Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Overstreet, George Philmore, USN Chief RadiomanUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Owen, Eugene Foshee, USNR Yeoman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Owen, James Byrell, USNR Aviation Machinist’s Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Owens, Bennie George, USN Pharmacist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pace, Edward Walter, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pacholec, Francis Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Padgett, Robert Richard, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Page, Bedford Jackson, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Paradinski, S.G., USNR Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21)
Paradise, Joseph Paul, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Parnell, Edward Conrad, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Parsons, Richard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Patashnick, Edward, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Paterson, Irwin Grant, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Patsenka, Edward Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pattat, Clarence Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Patterson, Roy Sherman Lee, USN Painter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Paul, James Garfield, USNR Yeoman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pavliska, Raymond Victor, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pearce, Charles Henry, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Peifer, Marvin Wayne, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pellettierre, Salvatore Dominick, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perkins, Lamont Wheeler, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perna, John Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perri, Gus Frank, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perrone, Anthony, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perry, Frank, USNR Baker Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perry, Jimmie Rodgers, USN Steward First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Perry, Joseph John, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Petersen, Marvin George, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Peterson, James Leroy, USN Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Peterson, Michael Jermiah, USN Aviation Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Peterson, Walter Lewis, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Peterson, William Arden, USNR Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Petry, Bernard Arthur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pettis, Edward Benson, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pettit, John Edward, USNR Motor Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pfisterer, Leo Edward, USN Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Phelps, Frederick Arthur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Phillips, Lawrence Henry, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Phillips, William C., USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pickering, Powell, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pierce, Robert Harland, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Piotter, Herbert Alexander, USNR Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Piper, William Ashly, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pisani, Bruno Alfred, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pisco, Thomas Anthony, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pitt, Norman, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pitts, Julian Leroy, USNR Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Platon, Lauro Eto, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Plesha, Mathew, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Popoli, Lawrence Joseph, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Porenta, Raymond George, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Poris, Philip, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Postolowski, George, USNR Motor Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Potoski, Joseph Leo, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Powell, Walter Edward, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Powers, Harry William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Powers, Thomas Joseph, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Prajzner, Bruno, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Price, Arthur, USNR Chief Boatswain's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Price, Hugh Denzell, USNR Aviation Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Price, John William, USNR Yeoman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Price, Samuel Isadore, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Printz, Charles Jordan, USN Aviation Electrician's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pritchard, Norwin Beryl, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Procopio, William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pruett, James Warren, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pupino, Joseph Robert, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Purpura, George James, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Pusateri, Anthony Joseph, USNR Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Putnam, Richard Lincoln, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Putney, Richard Wray, USNR Radio Technician First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Quilici, Dino Lawrence, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Raczkowski, Walter J., USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Raisgard, Helge, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ramsey, Ralph Gavin, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Randolph, Earl Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Reber, Kenneth Robert, USNR Machinist's Mate Engineman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Record, John Curtis, USNR Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Reed, Gene Shannon, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Reuter, Eugene Francis, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Reutlinger, Walter Joseph, USN Aviation Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Revard, Franklin Napoleon, USNR Aviation Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rice, Richard St. Clair, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rickman, Ollie Winston, USN Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ridenhour, Roy Lester, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rider, Robert Houge, USNR Aviation Chief RadiomanUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ringer, Fred Ray, USN Machinist's Mate Engineman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rismiller, George Franklin, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ritchey, James Casey, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ritchie, Earl James, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Robbins, James Edward, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Robinson, Blaine Okey, USN Carpenter's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rock, Joseph Leo, USNR Water Tender First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rodriguez, Fabian, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Roedersheimer, Lawrence Vincent, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Romano, John Vincent, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Roskey, Francis, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ross, Samuel Moses, USNR Aviation Metalsmith Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rossi, Edward Thomas, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Roth, Henry Harry, USNR Water Tender Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rude, Darrell Dalmer, USN Parachute Rigger Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rutledge, William Mort, USN Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Rydzewski, George, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sabine, Roy Raymond, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sallay, Bela, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
San Filippo, Tony Salvatore, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sansouci, Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Santantonio, George, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Santos, Edmond Joseph, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Saxe, Harold John, USNR Parachute Rigger Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Schatz, Anton Mike, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Scheidler, Donald Raymond, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Schertzer, Ray Douglass, USN Boilermaker First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Schlenker, John Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Schmidt, Lester Arnold, USNR Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Schmoker, Wallace, USNR Painter First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Schulze, Francis Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Scott, Grady Jackson, USNR Carpenter's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Secof, Al, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Semeraro, Joseph Jack, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Senft, Robert Joseph, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Carburetor Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Setz, William Chester, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shafer, William Lee, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shanahan, William Martin, USN Torpedoman's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shannon, John Irving, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shaprio, Martin, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sharak, Harry Russell, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sharp, Marion Henry, USN Chief SignalmanUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shaub, Melvin Herbert, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shaw, William Arthur, USN Ship's Cook Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shea, John Anthony, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sheets, Clifford Odell, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shellem, James John, USN Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shelton, James Roland, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Shepherd, James, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sherdahl, Robert Ben, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Silvia, Manuel, USNR Shipfitter First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Simcic, James Michael, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Simms, Harold Ray, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Simpson, Edwin Forren, USNR Pharmacist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Slavin, John Joseph, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Slivka, George, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sloan, Wallace Virgil, USN Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Glenn Erlan, USNR Aviation Radio Technician Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Lowell Gene, USNR Signalman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Malcom Lee, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Robert Earl, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Vernon Joe, USNR Aviation Metalsmith First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Smith, Willie Cecil, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Snediker, Charles John, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Spalletta, Tom, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Spencer, Robert Alfred, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Spillane, Charles, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
St. Clair, Robert Murle, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stahlin, Charles Robert, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stankey, Roger A., USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stanley, Irvin Elroy, USNR Aviation Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stark, Clifford Frank, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Steer, Gordon Macaulay, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Steingass, Daniel Junior, USNR Buglemaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stephenson, Bennie, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stephenson, Floyd Roderick, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stetson, George F., USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stevens, Wilson Robert, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Steward, Albert Charles, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Stocks, Donald Arthur, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Strickland, Alvin Wesley, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Strouse, Stanley William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Struck, John Albert, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Suitter, Warren William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sullivan, Robert John, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Suprey, John Francis, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Swails, Harold Lloyd, USN Aviation Bombsight Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sweeney, Raymond Leo, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Sweet, Francis William, USNR Chief StorekeeperUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Swiantek, Frank, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Propeller Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Taff, Theodore Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Takacs, Alexander Aleysisus, USN Aviation Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tamulonis, Peter A., USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Taveroni, Leno Joseph, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Taylor, Arthur William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Taylor, Don Arlo, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Taylor, Robert, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Hydraulic Mechanic Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tegarden, Warren Harvey, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Terhune, Richard Raymond, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Terry, Curtis Nathaniel, USN Cook First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Thibodeaux, Milton, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Thomas, Ferris Kimball, USNR Aviation Radio Technician Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Thomas, Ralph Elbert, USNR Aviation Radio Technician First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Thompson, James Denney, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Thurlow, William Madison, USN Water Tender Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tinney, Allen W., USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tokarz, William Henry, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Toleno, Dominic William, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tomah, Frederick Lawrence, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tomaszewski, Joseph Chester, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tombs, Bert Lorenzo, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tomkewicz, Charles Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Torres, Weber Rego, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Torrey, Edward G., USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Trewhitt, Lloyd Reed, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Trimmer, Donald Richard, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tritt, William Clifford, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
True, Charles Henry, USNR Aerographer's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Truitt, John Albert, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Trujillo, Levi Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tryon, Boyd P., USNR Water Tender First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tullis, Karl George, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tunnero, Anthony George, USNR Shipfitter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Turgeon, Donald Allen, USNR Aviation Electrician's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Turner, John, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tutten, John Alan, USNR Radarman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tych, Peter, USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Tyliszczak, John Leo, USNR Water Tender Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Tyrell, Edward Thomas, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Urquhart, Andrew George, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vachon, Kenneth Edward, USNR Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Van Sickle, Earl Robert, USNR Storekeeper Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vanuga, Michael, USNR Radarman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vasquez, Charles John, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vernetti, Hector Gilbert, USNR Parachute Rigger Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vierra, Everett William, USNR Baker Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Villere, Arthur Louis, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vitellaro, Dominick Dominick, USNR Shipfitter Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Vogt, Raymond Arthur, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wade, Derwood, USN Water Tender Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wagner, William Burton, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wait, Delos E., USN CommanderUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Waite, Jack David, USNR Ship's Cook Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Waleski, Walter A., USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Walker, Wilson Franklin, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wallace, Edward Walter, USN Gunner's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Waller, Harold Ray, USN Boatswain's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Walsh, John, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Walsh, John Francis, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Walsh, Robert Channing, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Walsh, Robert Francis Anthony, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ward, George Wallace, USNR Pharmacist's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ward, John J., USN Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Warden, Ray Wilburn, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Warzecha, Benny, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wassenaar, Garrett John, USN Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Waters, John Myrick, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Watson, Jesse Lynn, USNR Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weaver, Bobbie Clarence, USNR Aviation Ordnanceman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weckbaugh, Leland Stanford, USNR Radarman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weed, Thurlow Robert, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weekley, Eldridge Booth, USNR Fireman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weeman, Merle Dunlap, USNR Storekeeper Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weimer, Frederick Michael, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weiss, Martin, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weissenberger, Richard Carl, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Weltner, Henry Francis, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wennerstrand, Paul Warren, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wentworth, Chester Tucker, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
West, Bertus, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
West, Robert Fred, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wetzel, William Thomas, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wheeler, John Marion, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
White, Calvin Joseph, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
White, Cecil Lloyd, USNR Aviation Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Whitmire, Dennis Kenneth, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Whitt, Carl Edward, USNR Signalman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wickham, Joseph Howard, USNR Photographer's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wieman, Elmo John, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wiley, Richard Albert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Williams, Charles Henry, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Williams, Olin Calvin, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Williams, William, USNR Radioman Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Willison, Richard Alva, USNR Carpenter's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wills, Edward Arthur, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Albert Kennedy, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Fred Andrew, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Lonnie, USNR Steward's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Raymond B., USNR Electrician's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Robert Walton, USN Chief Machinist's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wilson, Thomas Bell, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wiwigac, Stanley, USN Gunner's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wolchek, Edward John, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wolf, John Frank, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wolf, Robert Eugene, USN Radioman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wood, Everett Warren, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wood, John Junior, USNR Electrician's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wood, Robert James, USNR Gunner's Mate Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wormell, John Philip, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wright, Bruce Kenneth, USN Chief Boatswain's MateUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wright, Delmar Hermon, USNR Steward's Mate First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wright, Wilbur Lincoln, USNR Aviation Machinist's Mate Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wyatt, John Tildon, USNR CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Wyatt, Robert Walden, USNR Lieutenant (junior grade)USS Block Island (CVE 21) +
Yablonicki, Michael Joseph, USNR Fireman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Yaccarino, Frank, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Young, Bradley Fred, USN Quartermaster Third ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Young, James Elbert, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Zammuto, Salvatore, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Zenchenko, John, USNR Seaman Second ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Ziegel, Dean Ellsworth, USN CoxswainUSS Block Island (CVE 21)
Zylick, Theodore, USNR Seaman First ClassUSS Block Island (CVE 21)

Served on indicates the ships we have listed for the person, some were stationed on multiple ships hit by U-boats.

People missing from this listing? Or perhaps additional information?
If you wish to add a crewmember to the listing we would need most of this information: ship name, nationality, name, dob, place of birth, service (merchant marine, . ), rank or job on board. We have place for a photo as well if provided. You can e-mail us the information here.


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